Department of Biotechnology
Government•New Delhi, India•
About: Department of Biotechnology is a(n) government organization based out in New Delhi, India. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Silver nanoparticle. The organization has 4800 authors who have published 5033 publication(s) receiving 82022 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
28 Feb 2009-Current Neuropharmacology
TL;DR: Recognition of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapy to oxidative stress has been proved an effective tool in alteration of any neuronal damage as well as free radical scavenging.
Abstract: Free radicals are common outcome of normal aerobic cellular metabolism. In-built antioxidant system of body plays its decisive role in prevention of any loss due to free radicals. However, imbalanced defense mechanism of antioxidants, overproduction or incorporation of free radicals from environment to living system leads to serious penalty leading to neuro-degeneration. Neural cells suffer functional or sensory loss in neurodegenerative diseases. Apart from several other environmental or genetic factors, oxidative stress (OS) leading to free radical attack on neural cells contributes calamitous role to neuro-degeneration. Though, oxygen is imperative for life, imbalanced metabolism and excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation end into a range of disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, aging and many other neural disorders. Toxicity of free radicals contributes to proteins and DNA injury, inflammation, tissue damage and subsequent cellular apoptosis. Antioxidants are now being looked upon as persuasive therapeutic against solemn neuronal loss, as they have capability to combat by neutralizing free radicals. Diet is major source of antioxidants, as well as medicinal herbs are catching attention to be commercial source of antioxidants at present. Recognition of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapy to oxidative stress has been proved an effective tool in alteration of any neuronal damage as well as free radical scavenging. Antioxidants have a wide scope to sequester metal ions involved in neuronal plaque formation to prevent oxidative stress. In addition, antioxidant therapy is vital in scavenging free radicals and ROS preventing neuronal degeneration in post-oxidative stress scenario.
18 Nov 2004-Journal of Plant Physiology
TL;DR: This review focuses on the ability and strategies of higher plants to respond and adapt to drought stress, including proline and glycine-betaine, as well as the role of abscisic acid under drought stress conditions.
Abstract: Environmental stresses trigger a wide variety of plant responses, ranging from altered gene expression and cellular metabolism to changes in growth rates and crop yields. A plethora of plant reactions exist to circumvent the potentially harmful effects caused by a wide range of both abiotic and biotic stresses, including light, drought, salinity, high temperatures, and pathogen infections. Among the environmental stresses, drought stress is one of the most adverse factors of plant growth and productivity. Understanding the biochemical and molecular responses to drought is essential for a holistic perception of plant resistance mechanisms to water-limited conditions. Drought stress progressively decreases CO2 assimilation rates due to reduced stomatal conductance. Drought stress also induces reduction in the contents and activities of photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle enzymes, including the key enzyme, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. The critical roles of proline and glycine-betaine, as well as the role of abscisic acid (ABA), under drought stress conditions have been actively researched to understand the tolerance of plants to dehydration. In addition, drought stress-induced generation of active oxygen species is well recognized at the cellular level and is tightly controlled at both the production and consumption levels in vivo, through increased antioxidative systems. Knowledge of sensing and signaling pathways, including ABA-mediated changes in response to drought stress, is essential to improve crop management. This review focuses on the ability and strategies of higher plants to respond and adapt to drought stress.
06 Feb 2017-Frontiers in Plant Science
TL;DR: The results of the present study have shown the role of NO in the reducing of ZnONPs toxicity through the regulation of accumulation ofZn as well as the functioning of the AsA–GSH cycle.
Abstract: The present study investigates ameliorative effect of nitric oxide (NO) against zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) phytotoxicity in wheat seedlings. ZnONPs exposure hampered growth of wheat seedlings which was coincided with reduced photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm and qP) due to increased accumulation of zinc (Zn) in xylem and phloem saps. However, SNP supplementation has partially mitigated the ZnONPs-mediated toxicity by modulation of photosynthetic activity and Zn accumulation in xylem and phloem sap. Further, the results reveal that ZnONPs treatments enhanced level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hence lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde; MDA) due to severely inhibited activities of the ascorbate-glutatione cycle (AsA-GSH) enzymes: ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and its associated metabolites: reduced ascorbate and glutathione. In contrast to this, the addition of SNP together with ZnONPs maintained the cellular functioning of the AsA-GSH cycle properly, hence lesser damage was noticed in comparison to ZnONPs treatments alone. The protective effect of SNP against ZnONPs toxicity on fresh weight (growth) can be reversed by 2-(4carboxy-2-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl- imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, a NO scavenger, suggesting role of NO released from SNP in ameliorating ZnONPs toxicity. Overall the results of the present study have shown about implication of NO in the reducing ZnONPs toxicity through the regulation of accumulation of Zn, and functioning of the AsA-GSH cycle.
Peter J. Campbell1, Gad Getz2, Jan O. Korbel3, Joshua M. Stuart4 +1329 more•Institutions (238)
TL;DR: The flagship paper of the ICGC/TCGA Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes Consortium describes the generation of the integrative analyses of 2,658 whole-cancer genomes and their matching normal tissues across 38 tumour types, the structures for international data sharing and standardized analyses, and the main scientific findings from across the consortium studies.
Abstract: Cancer is driven by genetic change, and the advent of massively parallel sequencing has enabled systematic documentation of this variation at the whole-genome scale1,2,3. Here we report the integrative analysis of 2,658 whole-cancer genomes and their matching normal tissues across 38 tumour types from the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) Consortium of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We describe the generation of the PCAWG resource, facilitated by international data sharing using compute clouds. On average, cancer genomes contained 4–5 driver mutations when combining coding and non-coding genomic elements; however, in around 5% of cases no drivers were identified, suggesting that cancer driver discovery is not yet complete. Chromothripsis, in which many clustered structural variants arise in a single catastrophic event, is frequently an early event in tumour evolution; in acral melanoma, for example, these events precede most somatic point mutations and affect several cancer-associated genes simultaneously. Cancers with abnormal telomere maintenance often originate from tissues with low replicative activity and show several mechanisms of preventing telomere attrition to critical levels. Common and rare germline variants affect patterns of somatic mutation, including point mutations, structural variants and somatic retrotransposition. A collection of papers from the PCAWG Consortium describes non-coding mutations that drive cancer beyond those in the TERT promoter4; identifies new signatures of mutational processes that cause base substitutions, small insertions and deletions and structural variation5,6; analyses timings and patterns of tumour evolution7; describes the diverse transcriptional consequences of somatic mutation on splicing, expression levels, fusion genes and promoter activity8,9; and evaluates a range of more-specialized features of cancer genomes8,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18.
TL;DR: This review details the various facets of biotechnology of B. braunii, including its microbiology and physiology; production of hydrocarbons and other compounds by the alga; methods of culture; downstream recovery and processing of algal hydrocarols; and cloning of the algal genes into other microorganisms.
Abstract: Botryococcus braunii, a green colonial microalga, is an unusually rich renewable source of hydrocarbons and other chemicals. Hydrocarbons can constitute up to 75% of the dry mass of B. braunii. This review details the various facets of biotechnology of B. braunii, including its microbiology and physiology; production of hydrocarbons and other compounds by the alga; methods of culture; downstream recovery and processing of algal hydrocarbons; and cloning of the algal genes into other microorganisms. B. braunii converts simple inorganic compounds and sunlight to potential hydrocarbon fuels and feedstocks for the chemical industry. Microorganisms such as B. braunii can, in the long run, reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and because of this B. braunii continues to attract much attention.
Showing all 4800 results
|Bansi D. Malhotra||75||375||19419|
|Sanjay K. Banerjee||62||798||30044|
|M. Michael Gromiha||56||352||10617|
|Swaran J.S. Flora||55||267||11434|
|Mallappa Kumara Swamy||54||864||14508|
|Pulok K. Mukherjee||54||296||10873|
|Jaya Narayan Sahu||49||157||9569|
|Jon R. Lorsch||48||117||7661|
|Amit K. Goyal||47||157||5749|