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Institution

École Normale Supérieure

OtherParis, Île-de-France, France
About: École Normale Supérieure is a(n) other organization based out in Paris, Île-de-France, France. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Catalysis. The organization has 68439 authors who have published 99414 publication(s) receiving 3092008 citation(s).
Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
Yann LeCun1, Léon Bottou2, Léon Bottou3, Yoshua Bengio4  +3 moreInstitutions (5)
01 Jan 1998
Abstract: Multilayer neural networks trained with the back-propagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradient based learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradient-based learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters, with minimal preprocessing. This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task. Convolutional neural networks, which are specifically designed to deal with the variability of 2D shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques. Real-life document recognition systems are composed of multiple modules including field extraction, segmentation recognition, and language modeling. A new learning paradigm, called graph transformer networks (GTN), allows such multimodule systems to be trained globally using gradient-based methods so as to minimize an overall performance measure. Two systems for online handwriting recognition are described. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of global training, and the flexibility of graph transformer networks. A graph transformer network for reading a bank cheque is also described. It uses convolutional neural network character recognizers combined with global training techniques to provide record accuracy on business and personal cheques. It is deployed commercially and reads several million cheques per day.

34,930 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
P. C. Hohenberg1, Walter Kohn2Institutions (2)
Abstract: This paper deals with the ground state of an interacting electron gas in an external potential $v(\mathrm{r})$. It is proved that there exists a universal functional of the density, $F[n(\mathrm{r})]$, independent of $v(\mathrm{r})$, such that the expression $E\ensuremath{\equiv}\ensuremath{\int}v(\mathrm{r})n(\mathrm{r})d\mathrm{r}+F[n(\mathrm{r})]$ has as its minimum value the correct ground-state energy associated with $v(\mathrm{r})$. The functional $F[n(\mathrm{r})]$ is then discussed for two situations: (1) $n(\mathrm{r})={n}_{0}+\stackrel{\ifmmode \tilde{}\else \~{}\fi{}}{n}(\mathrm{r})$, $\frac{\stackrel{\ifmmode \tilde{}\else \~{}\fi{}}{n}}{{n}_{0}}\ensuremath{\ll}1$, and (2) $n(\mathrm{r})=\ensuremath{\phi}(\frac{\mathrm{r}}{{r}_{0}})$ with $\ensuremath{\phi}$ arbitrary and ${r}_{0}\ensuremath{\rightarrow}\ensuremath{\infty}$. In both cases $F$ can be expressed entirely in terms of the correlation energy and linear and higher order electronic polarizabilities of a uniform electron gas. This approach also sheds some light on generalized Thomas-Fermi methods and their limitations. Some new extensions of these methods are presented.

33,880 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Thierry Paul1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: This special issue of Mathematical Structures in Computer Science contains several contributions related to the modern field of Quantum Information and Quantum Computing, with a focus on entanglement.
Abstract: This special issue of Mathematical Structures in Computer Science contains several contributions related to the modern field of Quantum Information and Quantum Computing. The first two papers deal with entanglement. The paper by R. Mosseri and P. Ribeiro presents a detailed description of the two-and three-qubit geometry in Hilbert space, dealing with the geometry of fibrations and discrete geometry. The paper by J.-G.Luque et al. is more algebraic and considers invariants of pure k-qubit states and their application to entanglement measurement.

12,173 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The theory of compressive sampling, also known as compressed sensing or CS, is surveyed, a novel sensing/sampling paradigm that goes against the common wisdom in data acquisition.
Abstract: Conventional approaches to sampling signals or images follow Shannon's theorem: the sampling rate must be at least twice the maximum frequency present in the signal (Nyquist rate). In the field of data conversion, standard analog-to-digital converter (ADC) technology implements the usual quantized Shannon representation - the signal is uniformly sampled at or above the Nyquist rate. This article surveys the theory of compressive sampling, also known as compressed sensing or CS, a novel sensing/sampling paradigm that goes against the common wisdom in data acquisition. CS theory asserts that one can recover certain signals and images from far fewer samples or measurements than traditional methods use.

8,847 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
17 Jun 2006
TL;DR: This paper presents a method for recognizing scene categories based on approximate global geometric correspondence that exceeds the state of the art on the Caltech-101 database and achieves high accuracy on a large database of fifteen natural scene categories.
Abstract: This paper presents a method for recognizing scene categories based on approximate global geometric correspondence. This technique works by partitioning the image into increasingly fine sub-regions and computing histograms of local features found inside each sub-region. The resulting "spatial pyramid" is a simple and computationally efficient extension of an orderless bag-of-features image representation, and it shows significantly improved performance on challenging scene categorization tasks. Specifically, our proposed method exceeds the state of the art on the Caltech-101 database and achieves high accuracy on a large database of fifteen natural scene categories. The spatial pyramid framework also offers insights into the success of several recently proposed image descriptions, including Torralba’s "gist" and Lowe’s SIFT descriptors.

8,415 citations


Authors

Showing all 68439 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Didier Raoult1733267153016
Simon Baron-Cohen172773118071
Andrew Zisserman167808261717
Edward T. Bullmore165746112463
H. Eugene Stanley1541190122321
Pierre Bourdieu153592194586
Gerald M. Rubin152382115248
Stanislas Dehaene14945686539
Melody A. Swartz1481304103753
J. Fraser Stoddart147123996083
Jean-François Cardoso145373115144
Richard S. J. Frackowiak142309100726
Cordelia Schmid135464103925
Jean Tirole134439103279
Ion Stoica13349394937
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202289
20213,849
20204,298
20194,313
20184,336
20174,286