École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
About: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne is a(n) facility organization based out in Lausanne, Switzerland. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Catalysis. The organization has 44041 authors who have published 98296 publication(s) receiving 4372092 citation(s). The organization is also known as: EPFL & ETHL.
Topics: Population, Catalysis, Laser, Thin film, Perovskite (structure)
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe a photovoltaic cell, created from low-to medium-purity materials through low-cost processes, which exhibits a commercially realistic energy-conversion efficiency.
Abstract: THE large-scale use of photovoltaic devices for electricity generation is prohibitively expensive at present: generation from existing commercial devices costs about ten times more than conventional methods1. Here we describe a photovoltaic cell, created from low-to medium-purity materials through low-cost processes, which exhibits a commercially realistic energy-conversion efficiency. The device is based on a 10-µm-thick, optically transparent film of titanium dioxide particles a few nanometres in size, coated with a monolayer of a charge-transfer dye to sensitize the film for light harvesting. Because of the high surface area of the semiconductor film and the ideal spectral characteristics of the dye, the device harvests a high proportion of the incident solar energy flux (46%) and shows exceptionally high efficiencies for the conversion of incident photons to electrical current (more than 80%). The overall light-to-electric energy conversion yield is 7.1-7.9% in simulated solar light and 12% in diffuse daylight. The large current densities (greater than 12 mA cm-2) and exceptional stability (sustaining at least five million turnovers without decomposition), as well as the low cost, make practical applications feasible.
University of Genoa1, University of Manchester2, KEK3, CERN4, Imperial College London5, Stanford University6, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research7, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare8, University of Pittsburgh9, Lyon College10, TRIUMF11, Northeastern University12, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility13, University of Córdoba (Spain)14, Goethe University Frankfurt15, University of Southampton16, University of Udine17, University of Alberta18, Tokyo Metropolitan University19, Helsinki Institute of Physics20, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI21, University of Bath22, Niigata University23, Naruto University of Education24, Kobe University25, University of Calabria26, University of Trieste27, European Space Agency28, University of Birmingham29, Ritsumeikan University30, Qinetiq31, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne32, Massachusetts Institute of Technology33, Brookhaven National Laboratory34
01 Jul 2003-Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section A-accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment
TL;DR: The Gelfant 4 toolkit as discussed by the authors is a toolkit for simulating the passage of particles through matter, including a complete range of functionality including tracking, geometry, physics models and hits.
Abstract: G eant 4 is a toolkit for simulating the passage of particles through matter. It includes a complete range of functionality including tracking, geometry, physics models and hits. The physics processes offered cover a comprehensive range, including electromagnetic, hadronic and optical processes, a large set of long-lived particles, materials and elements, over a wide energy range starting, in some cases, from 250 eV and extending in others to the TeV energy range. It has been designed and constructed to expose the physics models utilised, to handle complex geometries, and to enable its easy adaptation for optimal use in different sets of applications. The toolkit is the result of a worldwide collaboration of physicists and software engineers. It has been created exploiting software engineering and object-oriented technology and implemented in the C++ programming language. It has been used in applications in particle physics, nuclear physics, accelerator design, space engineering and medical physics.
University of Udine1, National Research Council2, International School for Advanced Studies3, Massachusetts Institute of Technology4, University of Paris5, Princeton University6, University of Minnesota7, ParisTech8, University of Milan9, International Centre for Theoretical Physics10, University of Paderborn11, ETH Zurich12, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne13
TL;DR: QUANTUM ESPRESSO as discussed by the authors is an integrated suite of computer codes for electronic-structure calculations and materials modeling, based on density functional theory, plane waves, and pseudopotentials (norm-conserving, ultrasoft, and projector-augmented wave).
Abstract: QUANTUM ESPRESSO is an integrated suite of computer codes for electronic-structure calculations and materials modeling, based on density-functional theory, plane waves, and pseudopotentials (norm-conserving, ultrasoft, and projector-augmented wave). The acronym ESPRESSO stands for opEn Source Package for Research in Electronic Structure, Simulation, and Optimization. It is freely available to researchers around the world under the terms of the GNU General Public License. QUANTUM ESPRESSO builds upon newly-restructured electronic-structure codes that have been developed and tested by some of the original authors of novel electronic-structure algorithms and applied in the last twenty years by some of the leading materials modeling groups worldwide. Innovation and efficiency are still its main focus, with special attention paid to massively parallel architectures, and a great effort being devoted to user friendliness. QUANTUM ESPRESSO is evolving towards a distribution of independent and interoperable codes in the spirit of an open-source project, where researchers active in the field of electronic-structure calculations are encouraged to participate in the project by contributing their own codes or by implementing their own ideas into existing codes.
01 Oct 2006-Bioinformatics
TL;DR: UNLABELLED RAxML-VI-HPC (randomized axelerated maximum likelihood for high performance computing) is a sequential and parallel program for inference of large phylogenies with maximum likelihood (ML) that has been used to compute ML trees on two of the largest alignments to date.
Abstract: Summary: RAxML-VI-HPC (randomized axelerated maximum likelihood for high performance computing) is a sequential and parallel program for inference of large phylogenies with maximum likelihood (ML). Low-level technical optimizations, a modification of the search algorithm, and the use of the GTR+CAT approximation as replacement for GTR+Γ yield a program that is between 2.7 and 52 times faster than the previous version of RAxML. A large-scale performance comparison with GARLI, PHYML, IQPNNI and MrBayes on real data containing 1000 up to 6722 taxa shows that RAxML requires at least 5.6 times less main memory and yields better trees in similar times than the best competing program (GARLI) on datasets up to 2500 taxa. On datasets ≥4000 taxa it also runs 2--3 times faster than GARLI. RAxML has been parallelized with MPI to conduct parallel multiple bootstraps and inferences on distinct starting trees. The program has been used to compute ML trees on two of the largest alignments to date containing 25 057 (1463 bp) and 2182 (51 089 bp) taxa, respectively. Availability: icwww.epfl.ch/~stamatak Contact: Alexandros.Stamatakis@epfl.ch Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
01 Nov 2012-Nature Nanotechnology
TL;DR: This work reviews the historical development of Transition metal dichalcogenides, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.
Abstract: Single-layer metal dichalcogenides are two-dimensional semiconductors that present strong potential for electronic and sensing applications complementary to that of graphene.
Showing all 44041 results
|Richard H. Friend||169||1182||140032|
|G. A. Cowan||159||2353||172594|
|Ian A. Wilson||158||971||98221|
|Melody A. Swartz||148||1304||103753|
|Henry J. Snaith||146||511||123155|
|Richard S. J. Frackowiak||142||309||100726|
|Kevin J. Tracey||138||561||82791|
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