Edinburgh Napier University
Education•Edinburgh, United Kingdom•
About: Edinburgh Napier University is a(n) education organization based out in Edinburgh, United Kingdom. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Higher education. The organization has 2665 authors who have published 6859 publication(s) receiving 175272 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
Daniel J. Klionsky1, Kotb Abdelmohsen2, Akihisa Abe3, Joynal Abedin4 +2519 more•Institutions (695)
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
TL;DR: This review critiques existing nanomaterial research in freshwater, marine, and soil environments and illustrates the paucity of existing research and demonstrates the need for additional research.
Abstract: The recent advances in nanotechnology and the corresponding increase in the use of nanomaterials in products in every sector of society have resulted in uncertainties regarding environmental impacts. The objectives of this review are to introduce the key aspects pertaining to nanomaterials in the environment and to discuss what is known concerning their fate, behavior, disposition, and toxicity, with a particular focus on those that make up manufactured nanomaterials. This review critiques existing nanomaterial research in freshwater, marine, and soil environments. It illustrates the paucity of existing research and demonstrates the need for additional research. Environmental scientists are encouraged to base this research on existing studies on colloidal behavior and toxicology. The need for standard reference and testing materials as well as methodology for suspension preparation and testing is also discussed.
01 Jul 2008-Nature Nanotechnology
TL;DR: Exposing the mesothelial lining of the body cavity of mice to long multiwalled carbon nanotubes results in asbestos-like, length-dependent, pathogenic behaviour, including inflammation and the formation of lesions known as granulomas.
Abstract: Carbon nanotubes have distinctive characteristics, but their needle-like fibre shape has been compared to asbestos, raising concerns that widespread use of carbon nanotubes may lead to mesothelioma, cancer of the lining of the lungs caused by exposure to asbestos. Here we show that exposing the mesothelial lining of the body cavity of mice, as a surrogate for the mesothelial lining of the chest cavity, to long multiwalled carbon nanotubes results in asbestos-like, length-dependent, pathogenic behaviour. This includes inflammation and the formation of lesions known as granulomas. This is of considerable importance, because research and business communities continue to invest heavily in carbon nanotubes for a wide range of products under the assumption that they are no more hazardous than graphite. Our results suggest the need for further research and great caution before introducing such products into the market if long-term harm is to be avoided.
21 Jan 1995-The Lancet
TL;DR: It is suggested that ultra-fine particles in the nature of the urban particulate cloud are able to provoke alveolar inflammation, with release of mediators capable, in susceptible individuals, of causing exacerbations of lung disease and of increasing blood coagulability, thus also explaining the observed increases in cardiovascular deaths associated with urban pollution episodes.
Abstract: Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an association between particulate air pollution and not only exacerbations of illness in people with respiratory disease but also rises in the numbers of deaths from cardiovascular and respiratory disease among older people. Meta-analyses of these studies indicate that the associations are unlikely to be explained by any confounder, and suggest that they represent cause and effect. We propose that the explanation lies in the nature of the urban particulate cloud, which may contain up to 100000 nanometer-sized particles per mL, in what may be a gravimetric concentration of only 100-200 micrograms/m3 of pollutant. We suggest that such ultra-fine particles are able to provoke alveolar inflammation, with release of mediators capable, in susceptible individuals, of causing exacerbations of lung disease and of increasing blood coagulability, thus also explaining the observed increases in cardiovascular deaths associated with urban pollution episodes. This hypothesis is testable both experimentally and epidemiologically.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors review the recent progress in using silane coupling agents for NFPCs, summarizes the effective silane structures from the silane family, clarifies the interaction mechanisms between natural fibers and polymer matrices, and presents the effects of silane treatments on the mechanical and outdoor performance of the resulting composites.
Abstract: Natural fiber reinforced polymer composites (NFPCs) provide the customers with more alternatives in the material market due to their unique advantages. Poor fiber–matrix interfacial adhesion may, however, negatively affect the physical and mechanical properties of the resulting composites due to the surface incompatibility between hydrophilic natural fibers and non-polar polymers (thermoplastics and thermosets). A variety of silanes (mostly trialkoxysilanes) have been applied as coupling agents in the NFPCs to promote interfacial adhesion and improve the properties of composites. This paper reviews the recent progress in using silane coupling agents for NFPCs, summarizes the effective silane structures from the silane family, clarifies the interaction mechanisms between natural fibers and polymer matrices, and presents the effects of silane treatments on the mechanical and outdoor performance of the resulting composites.
Showing all 2665 results
|Richard J. Simpson||113||850||59378|
|Sharon K. Parker||68||238||21089|
|John H. Adams||66||354||16169|
|Darren J. Kelly||65||252||13007|
|Neil B. McKeown||65||281||19371|
|Jane K. Hill||62||147||20733|
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