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Institution

European Space Agency

NonprofitParis, France
About: European Space Agency is a nonprofit organization based out in Paris, France. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Galaxy & Stars. The organization has 4442 authors who have published 8396 publications receiving 293468 citations. The organization is also known as: ESA & ASE.
Topics: Galaxy, Stars, Population, Star formation, Spacecraft


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
S. Agostinelli1, John Allison2, K. Amako3, J. Apostolakis4, Henrique Araujo5, P. Arce4, Makoto Asai6, D. Axen4, S. Banerjee7, G. Barrand, F. Behner4, Lorenzo Bellagamba8, J. Boudreau9, L. Broglia10, A. Brunengo8, H. Burkhardt4, Stephane Chauvie, J. Chuma11, R. Chytracek4, Gene Cooperman12, G. Cosmo4, P. V. Degtyarenko13, Andrea Dell'Acqua4, G. Depaola14, D. Dietrich15, R. Enami, A. Feliciello, C. Ferguson16, H. Fesefeldt4, Gunter Folger4, Franca Foppiano, Alessandra Forti2, S. Garelli, S. Gianì4, R. Giannitrapani17, D. Gibin4, J. J. Gomez Y Cadenas4, I. González4, G. Gracia Abril4, G. Greeniaus18, Walter Greiner15, Vladimir Grichine, A. Grossheim4, Susanna Guatelli, P. Gumplinger11, R. Hamatsu19, K. Hashimoto, H. Hasui, A. Heikkinen20, A. S. Howard5, Vladimir Ivanchenko4, A. Johnson6, F.W. Jones11, J. Kallenbach, Naoko Kanaya4, M. Kawabata, Y. Kawabata, M. Kawaguti, S.R. Kelner21, Paul R. C. Kent22, A. Kimura23, T. Kodama24, R. P. Kokoulin21, M. Kossov13, Hisaya Kurashige25, E. Lamanna26, Tapio Lampén20, V. Lara4, Veronique Lefebure4, F. Lei16, M. Liendl4, W. S. Lockman, Francesco Longo27, S. Magni, M. Maire, E. Medernach4, K. Minamimoto24, P. Mora de Freitas, Yoshiyuki Morita3, K. Murakami3, M. Nagamatu24, R. Nartallo28, Petteri Nieminen28, T. Nishimura, K. Ohtsubo, M. Okamura, S. W. O'Neale29, Y. Oohata19, K. Paech15, J Perl6, Andreas Pfeiffer4, Maria Grazia Pia, F. Ranjard4, A.M. Rybin, S.S Sadilov4, E. Di Salvo8, Giovanni Santin27, Takashi Sasaki3, N. Savvas2, Y. Sawada, Stefan Scherer15, S. Sei24, V. Sirotenko4, David J. Smith6, N. Starkov, H. Stoecker15, J. Sulkimo20, M. Takahata23, Satoshi Tanaka30, E. Tcherniaev4, E. Safai Tehrani6, M. Tropeano1, P. Truscott31, H. Uno24, L. Urbán, P. Urban32, M. Verderi, A. Walkden2, W. Wander33, H. Weber15, J.P. Wellisch4, Torre Wenaus34, D.C. Williams, Douglas Wright6, T. Yamada24, H. Yoshida24, D. Zschiesche15 
TL;DR: The Gelfant 4 toolkit as discussed by the authors is a toolkit for simulating the passage of particles through matter, including a complete range of functionality including tracking, geometry, physics models and hits.
Abstract: G eant 4 is a toolkit for simulating the passage of particles through matter. It includes a complete range of functionality including tracking, geometry, physics models and hits. The physics processes offered cover a comprehensive range, including electromagnetic, hadronic and optical processes, a large set of long-lived particles, materials and elements, over a wide energy range starting, in some cases, from 250 eV and extending in others to the TeV energy range. It has been designed and constructed to expose the physics models utilised, to handle complex geometries, and to enable its easy adaptation for optimal use in different sets of applications. The toolkit is the result of a worldwide collaboration of physicists and software engineers. It has been created exploiting software engineering and object-oriented technology and implemented in the C++ programming language. It has been used in applications in particle physics, nuclear physics, accelerator design, space engineering and medical physics.

18,904 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the mass density, Omega_M, and cosmological-constant energy density of the universe were measured using the analysis of 42 Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Supernova Cosmology project.
Abstract: We report measurements of the mass density, Omega_M, and cosmological-constant energy density, Omega_Lambda, of the universe based on the analysis of 42 Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Supernova Cosmology Project. The magnitude-redshift data for these SNe, at redshifts between 0.18 and 0.83, are fit jointly with a set of SNe from the Calan/Tololo Supernova Survey, at redshifts below 0.1, to yield values for the cosmological parameters. All SN peak magnitudes are standardized using a SN Ia lightcurve width-luminosity relation. The measurement yields a joint probability distribution of the cosmological parameters that is approximated by the relation 0.8 Omega_M - 0.6 Omega_Lambda ~= -0.2 +/- 0.1 in the region of interest (Omega_M <~ 1.5). For a flat (Omega_M + Omega_Lambda = 1) cosmology we find Omega_M = 0.28{+0.09,-0.08} (1 sigma statistical) {+0.05,-0.04} (identified systematics). The data are strongly inconsistent with a Lambda = 0 flat cosmology, the simplest inflationary universe model. An open, Lambda = 0 cosmology also does not fit the data well: the data indicate that the cosmological constant is non-zero and positive, with a confidence of P(Lambda > 0) = 99%, including the identified systematic uncertainties. The best-fit age of the universe relative to the Hubble time is t_0 = 14.9{+1.4,-1.1} (0.63/h) Gyr for a flat cosmology. The size of our sample allows us to perform a variety of statistical tests to check for possible systematic errors and biases. We find no significant differences in either the host reddening distribution or Malmquist bias between the low-redshift Calan/Tololo sample and our high-redshift sample. The conclusions are robust whether or not a width-luminosity relation is used to standardize the SN peak magnitudes.

16,838 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Peter A. R. Ade1, Nabila Aghanim2, Monique Arnaud3, M. Ashdown4  +334 moreInstitutions (82)
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a cosmological analysis based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation.
Abstract: This paper presents cosmological results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Our results are in very good agreement with the 2013 analysis of the Planck nominal-mission temperature data, but with increased precision. The temperature and polarization power spectra are consistent with the standard spatially-flat 6-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted “base ΛCDM” in this paper). From the Planck temperature data combined with Planck lensing, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0 = (67.8 ± 0.9) km s-1Mpc-1, a matter density parameter Ωm = 0.308 ± 0.012, and a tilted scalar spectral index with ns = 0.968 ± 0.006, consistent with the 2013 analysis. Note that in this abstract we quote 68% confidence limits on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters. We present the first results of polarization measurements with the Low Frequency Instrument at large angular scales. Combined with the Planck temperature and lensing data, these measurements give a reionization optical depth of τ = 0.066 ± 0.016, corresponding to a reionization redshift of . These results are consistent with those from WMAP polarization measurements cleaned for dust emission using 353-GHz polarization maps from the High Frequency Instrument. We find no evidence for any departure from base ΛCDM in the neutrino sector of the theory; for example, combining Planck observations with other astrophysical data we find Neff = 3.15 ± 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, consistent with the value Neff = 3.046 of the Standard Model of particle physics. The sum of neutrino masses is constrained to ∑ mν < 0.23 eV. The spatial curvature of our Universe is found to be very close to zero, with | ΩK | < 0.005. Adding a tensor component as a single-parameter extension to base ΛCDM we find an upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r0.002< 0.11, consistent with the Planck 2013 results and consistent with the B-mode polarization constraints from a joint analysis of BICEP2, Keck Array, and Planck (BKP) data. Adding the BKP B-mode data to our analysis leads to a tighter constraint of r0.002 < 0.09 and disfavours inflationarymodels with a V(φ) ∝ φ2 potential. The addition of Planck polarization data leads to strong constraints on deviations from a purely adiabatic spectrum of fluctuations. We find no evidence for any contribution from isocurvature perturbations or from cosmic defects. Combining Planck data with other astrophysical data, including Type Ia supernovae, the equation of state of dark energy is constrained to w = −1.006 ± 0.045, consistent with the expected value for a cosmological constant. The standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the best-fit Planck base ΛCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We also constraints on annihilating dark matter and on possible deviations from the standard recombination history. In neither case do we find no evidence for new physics. The Planck results for base ΛCDM are in good agreement with baryon acoustic oscillation data and with the JLA sample of Type Ia supernovae. However, as in the 2013 analysis, the amplitude of the fluctuation spectrum is found to be higher than inferred from some analyses of rich cluster counts and weak gravitational lensing. We show that these tensions cannot easily be resolved with simple modifications of the base ΛCDM cosmology. Apart from these tensions, the base ΛCDM cosmology provides an excellent description of the Planck CMB observations and many other astrophysical data sets.

10,728 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Peter A. R. Ade1, Nabila Aghanim2, C. Armitage-Caplan3, Monique Arnaud4  +324 moreInstitutions (70)
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the first cosmological results based on Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and lensing-potential power spectra, which are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations.
Abstract: This paper presents the first cosmological results based on Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. We find that the Planck spectra at high multipoles (l ≳ 40) are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations. Within the context of this cosmology, the Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision: the angular size of the sound horizon at recombination, the physical densities of baryons and cold dark matter, and the scalar spectral index are estimated to be θ∗ = (1.04147 ± 0.00062) × 10-2, Ωbh2 = 0.02205 ± 0.00028, Ωch2 = 0.1199 ± 0.0027, and ns = 0.9603 ± 0.0073, respectively(note that in this abstract we quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters). For this cosmology, we find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0 = (67.3 ± 1.2) km s-1 Mpc-1, and a high value of the matter density parameter, Ωm = 0.315 ± 0.017. These values are in tension with recent direct measurements of H0 and the magnitude-redshift relation for Type Ia supernovae, but are in excellent agreement with geometrical constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We use high-resolution CMB data together with Planck to provide greater control on extragalactic foreground components in an investigation of extensions to the six-parameter ΛCDM model. We present selected results from a large grid of cosmological models, using a range of additional astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured over the standard six-parameter ΛCDM cosmology. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity isinsensitive to the addition of tensor modes and to changes in the matter content of the Universe. We find an upper limit of r0.002< 0.11 on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. There is no evidence for additional neutrino-like relativistic particles beyond the three families of neutrinos in the standard model. Using BAO and CMB data, we find Neff = 3.30 ± 0.27 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, and an upper limit of 0.23 eV for the sum of neutrino masses. Our results are in excellent agreement with big bang nucleosynthesis and the standard value of Neff = 3.046. We find no evidence for dynamical dark energy; using BAO and CMB data, the dark energy equation of state parameter is constrained to be w = -1.13-0.10+0.13. We also use the Planck data to set limits on a possible variation of the fine-structure constant, dark matter annihilation and primordial magnetic fields. Despite the success of the six-parameter ΛCDM model in describing the Planck data at high multipoles, we note that this cosmology does not provide a good fit to the temperature power spectrum at low multipoles. The unusual shape of the spectrum in the multipole range 20 ≲ l ≲ 40 was seen previously in the WMAP data and is a real feature of the primordial CMB anisotropies. The poor fit to the spectrum at low multipoles is not of decisive significance, but is an “anomaly” in an otherwise self-consistent analysis of the Planck temperature data.

7,060 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: GeGeant4 as mentioned in this paper is a software toolkit for the simulation of the passage of particles through matter, it is used by a large number of experiments and projects in a variety of application domains, including high energy physics, astrophysics and space science, medical physics and radiation protection.
Abstract: Geant4 is a software toolkit for the simulation of the passage of particles through matter. It is used by a large number of experiments and projects in a variety of application domains, including high energy physics, astrophysics and space science, medical physics and radiation protection. Its functionality and modeling capabilities continue to be extended, while its performance is enhanced. An overview of recent developments in diverse areas of the toolkit is presented. These include performance optimization for complex setups; improvements for the propagation in fields; new options for event biasing; and additions and improvements in geometry, physics processes and interactive capabilities

6,063 citations


Authors

Showing all 4471 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
F. Piacentini149531108493
M. López-Caniego140452100235
David Taylor131246993220
X. Dupac13026994181
J. A. Tauber13027889677
Jose M Hernandez12084882384
Luciana Bianchi11559662245
Bahram Mobasher10636151474
Andy Haines10147845073
Fiona A. Harrison9985043921
Michele Cappellari9642338790
L. Mendes9414428195
Laura Bonavera9421859643
Luigi Stella9277136266
Jelle Kaastra9067728093
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202312
202249
2021525
2020477
2019493
2018439