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Institution

European Space Research and Technology Centre

GovernmentNoordwijk-Binnen, Netherlands
About: European Space Research and Technology Centre is a government organization based out in Noordwijk-Binnen, Netherlands. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Galaxy & Spacecraft. The organization has 3700 authors who have published 7396 publications receiving 241490 citations. The organization is also known as: ESA ESTEC & ESTEC.
Topics: Galaxy, Spacecraft, Comet, Stars, Solar wind


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Gaia as discussed by the authors is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach.
Abstract: Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We pay special attention to the payload module, the performance of which is closely related to the scientific performance of the mission. We provide a summary of the commissioning activities and findings, followed by a description of the routine operational mode. We summarise scientific performance estimates on the basis of in-orbit operations. Several intermediate Gaia data releases are planned and the data can be retrieved from the Gaia Archive, which is available through the Gaia home page.

5,164 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Herschel was launched on 14 May 2009, and is now an operational ESA space observatory o ering unprecedented observational capabilities in the far-infrared and sub-millimetre spectral range 55 671 m.
Abstract: Herschel was launched on 14 May 2009, and is now an operational ESA space observatory o ering unprecedented observational capabilities in the far-infrared and submillimetre spectral range 55 671 m. Herschel carries a 3.5 metre diameter passively cooled Cassegrain telescope, which is the largest of its kind and utilises a novel silicon carbide technology. The science payload comprises three instruments: two direct detection cameras/medium resolution spectrometers, PACS and SPIRE, and a very high-resolution heterodyne spectrometer, HIFI, whose focal plane units are housed inside a superfluid helium cryostat. Herschel is an observatory facility operated in partnership among ESA, the instrument consortia, and NASA. The mission lifetime is determined by the cryostat hold time. Nominally approximately 20,000 hours will be available for astronomy, 32% is guaranteed time and the remainder is open to the worldwide general astronomical community through a standard competitive proposal procedure.

3,359 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) consortium has provided the focal plane instruments for the three X-ray mirror systems on XMM-Newton, including two cameras with a reflecting grating spectrometer in the optical path equipped with MOS type CCDs as focal plane detectors.
Abstract: The European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) consortium has provided the focal plane instruments for the three X-ray mirror systems on XMM-Newton. Two cameras with a reflecting grating spectrometer in the optical path are equipped with MOS type CCDs as focal plane detectors (Turner 2001), the telescope with the full photon flux operates the novel pn-CCD as an imaging X-ray spectrometer. The pn-CCD camera system was developed under the leadership of the Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Garching. The concept of the pn-CCD is described as well as the dierent operational modes of the camera system. The electrical, mechanical and thermal design of the focal plane and camera is briefly treated. The in-orbit performance is described in terms of energy resolution, quantum eciency, time resolution, long term stability and charged particle background. Special emphasis is given to the radiation hardening of the devices and the measured and expected degradation due to radiation damage of ionizing particles in the rst 9 months of in orbit operation.

2,933 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
B. P. Abbott1, Richard J. Abbott1, T. D. Abbott2, Fausto Acernese3  +1195 moreInstitutions (139)
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used the observed time delay of $(+1.74\pm 0.05)\,{\rm{s}}$ between GRB 170817A and GW170817 to constrain the difference between the speed of gravity and speed of light to be between $-3
Abstract: On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory. The probability of the near-simultaneous temporal and spatial observation of GRB 170817A and GW170817 occurring by chance is $5.0\times {10}^{-8}$. We therefore confirm binary neutron star mergers as a progenitor of short GRBs. The association of GW170817 and GRB 170817A provides new insight into fundamental physics and the origin of short GRBs. We use the observed time delay of $(+1.74\pm 0.05)\,{\rm{s}}$ between GRB 170817A and GW170817 to: (i) constrain the difference between the speed of gravity and the speed of light to be between $-3\times {10}^{-15}$ and $+7\times {10}^{-16}$ times the speed of light, (ii) place new bounds on the violation of Lorentz invariance, (iii) present a new test of the equivalence principle by constraining the Shapiro delay between gravitational and electromagnetic radiation. We also use the time delay to constrain the size and bulk Lorentz factor of the region emitting the gamma-rays. GRB 170817A is the closest short GRB with a known distance, but is between 2 and 6 orders of magnitude less energetic than other bursts with measured redshift. A new generation of gamma-ray detectors, and subthreshold searches in existing detectors, will be essential to detect similar short bursts at greater distances. Finally, we predict a joint detection rate for the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors of 0.1–1.4 per year during the 2018–2019 observing run and 0.3–1.7 per year at design sensitivity.

2,633 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the GMES Sentinel-2 mission including a technical system concept overview, image quality, Level 1 data processing and operational applications is provided.

2,517 citations


Authors

Showing all 3725 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Anton M. Koekemoer1681127106796
X. Dupac13026994181
J. A. Tauber13027889677
William J. Chaplin11764452241
Luciana Bianchi11559662245
Michaël Gillon9358530134
Luigi Stella9277136266
Suzanne Aigrain8934825967
Nino Panagia8947848961
J. P. Osborne8875242264
Stanley W. H. Cowley8350423457
Pablo Fosalba8235429165
Peter Schneider8148126698
Carolus J. Schrijver8129729858
Steven S. Vogt7414933829
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202338
202231
2021259
2020198
2019276
2018285