Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University
About: Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University is a(n) healthcare organization based out in Ürümqi, China. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Apoptosis & Population. The organization has 241 authors who have published 139 publication(s) receiving 1190 citation(s).
Topics: Apoptosis, Population, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, Viability assay
TL;DR: The therapeutic effect of nerve conduits is improving with increasing choice of conduit material, new construction of conduits, and the inclusion of neurotrophic factors and support cells in the conduits.
Abstract: With significant advances in the research and application of nerve conduits, they have been used to repair peripheral nerve injury for several decades. Nerve conduits range from biological tubes to synthetic tubes, and from nondegradable tubes to biodegradable tubes. Researchers have explored hollow tubes, tubes filled with scaffolds containing neurotrophic factors, and those seeded with Schwann cells or stem cells. The therapeutic effect of nerve conduits is improving with increasing choice of conduit material, new construction of conduits, and the inclusion of neurotrophic factors and support cells in the conduits. Improvements in functional outcomes are expected when these are optimized for use in clinical practice.
TL;DR: Results suggest that autophagy may serve as a protection against apoptosis in mechanically-injured spinal cord neurons and targeting mTOR and/or enhancing Beclin-1 expression might be alternative therapeutic strategies for SCI.
Abstract: Apoptosis has been widely reported to be involved in the pathogenesis associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Recently, autophagy has also been implicated in various neuronal damage models. However, the role of autophagy in SCI is still controversial and its interrelationship with apoptosis remains unclear. Here, we used an in vitro SCI model to observe a time-dependent induction of autophagy and apoptosis. Mechanical injury induced autophagy markers such as LC3 lipidation, LC3II/LC3I conversion, and Beclin-1expression. Injured neurons showed decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis. To elucidate the effect of autophagy on apoptosis, the mechanically-injured neurons were treated with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and 3-methyl adenine (3-MA), which are known to regulate autophagy positively and negatively, respectively. Rapamycin-treated neurons showed the highest level of cell viability and lowest level of apoptosis among the injured neurons and those treated with 3-MA showed the reciprocal effect. Notably, rapamycin-treated neurons exhibited slightly reduced Bax expression and significantly increasedBcl-2 expression. Furthermore, by plasmid transfection, we showed that Beclin-1-overexpressing neuronal cells responded to mechanical injury with greater LC3II/LC3I conversion and cell viability, lower levels of apoptosis, higher Bcl-2 expression, and unaltered Bax expression as compared to vector control cells. Beclin-1-knockdown neurons showed almost the opposite effects. Taken together, our results suggest that autophagy may serve as a protection against apoptosis in mechanically-injured spinal cord neurons. Targeting mTOR and/or enhancing Beclin-1 expression might be alternative therapeutic strategies for SCI.
TL;DR: Findings of this investigation suggest that MYR and MEG combined with cisplatin is a potential clinical chemotherapeutic approach in human cervical cancer.
Abstract: Drug combination therapies are common practice in the treatment of cancer. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer effects of myricetin (MYR), methyl eugenol (MEG) and cisplatin (CP) both separately as well as in combination against cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. To demonstrate whether MYR and MEG enhance the anticancer activity of CP against cervical cancer cells, we treated HeLa cells with MYR and MEG alone or in combination with cisplatin and evaluated cell growth and apoptosis using MTT (3 (4, 5 dimethyl thiazol 2yl) 2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, LDH release assay, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The results revealed that, as compared to single drug treatment, the combination of MYR or MEG with CP resulted in greater effect in inhibiting cancer cell growth and inducing apoptosis. Cell apoptosis induction, Caspase-3 activity, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial membrane potential loss were systematically studied to reveal the mechanisms of synergy between MYR, MEG and CP. Combination of MYR or MEG with CP resulted in more potent apoptosis induction as revealed by fluorescence microscopy using Hoechst 33258 and AO-ETBR staining. The combination treatment also increased the number of cells in G0/G1 phase dramatically as compared to single drug treatment. Mitochondrial membrane potential loss (ΛΨm) as well as Caspase-3 activity was much higher in combination treatment as compared to single drug treatment. Findings of this investigation suggest that MYR and MEG combined with cisplatin is a potential clinical chemotherapeutic approach in human cervical cancer.
11 May 2017-Neurological Sciences
TL;DR: Meta-analysis showed that the decreased numbers of CD3+, CD4+ lymphocytes subsets and the increased number of natural killer cell were found in Parkinson’s disease patients, and the lymphocyte subset and NK cell may be associated with the risk of Parkinson's disease.
Abstract: The correlation between immunity and Parkinson’s disease was presented in many papers, which also discussed lymphocyte and natural killer cell. But these studies have yielded inconsistent results. To systematically review the relationship between the lymphocyte subsets/natural killer cell and the risk of Parkinson’s disease, we electronically searched the SpringerLink, Web of Science, Ebsco-medline with full text, Pubmed, Elsevier-ScienceDirect, Ovid-lww-oup, Wanfang Data for case-control trials on comparing the number of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and natural killer cell in Parkinson’s patients and healthy controls. According to the Cochrane methods, the reviewers selected literature, extracted data, and assessed the quality. Then, a meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2. Finally, 21 case-control trials including 943 cases of Parkinson’s disease were fit into our data analysis. Meta-analysis showed that the decreased numbers of CD3+, CD4+ lymphocyte subsets and the increased number of natural killer cell were found in Parkinson’s disease patients. In the intermediate and late stage of PD, CD8+ lymphocyte subsets had a significant decrement. However, the number of B lymphocyte subsets had no significant association with Parkinson’s disease. The lymphocyte subsets and NK cell may be associated with the risk of Parkinson’s disease.
TL;DR: In Xinjiang Uyghur TB patients, liver injury was associated with the genetic variant NAT2*5, however the genetic markers studied are unlikely to be useful for screening patients due to the low sensitivity and low positive predictive values for identifying persons at risk of liver injury.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Of three first-line anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs, isoniazid is most commonly associated with hepatotoxicity. Differences in INH-induced toxicity have been attributed to genetic variability at several loci, NAT2, CYP2E1, GSTM1and GSTT1, that code for drug-metabolizing enzymes. This study evaluated whether the polymorphisms in these enzymes were associated with an increased risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis in patients and could potentially be used to identify patients at risk of liver injury. METHODS AND DESIGN In a cross-sectional study, 2244 tuberculosis patients were assessed two months after the start of treatment. Anti-TB drug-induced liver injury (ATLI) was defined as an ALT, AST or bilirubin value more than twice the upper limit of normal. NAT2, CYP2E1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes were determined using the PCR/ligase detection reaction assays. RESULTS 2244 patients were evaluated, there were 89 cases of ATLI, a prevalence of 4% 9 patients (0.4%) had ALT levels more than 5 times the upper limit of normal. The prevalence of ATLI was greater among men than women, and there was a weak association with NAT2*5 genotypes, with ATLI more common among patients with the NAT2*5*CT genotype. The sensitivity of the CT genotype for identifying patients with ATLI was 42% and the positive predictive value 5.9%. CT ATLI was more common among slow acetylators (prevalence ratio 2.0 (95% CI 0.95,4.20) )compared to rapid acetylators. There was no evidence that ATLI was associated with CYP2E1 RsaIc1/c1genotype, CYP2E1 RsaIc1/c2 or c2/c2 genotypes, or GSTM1/GSTT1 null genotypes. CONCLUSIONS In Xinjiang Uyghur TB patients, liver injury was associated with the genetic variant NAT2*5, however the genetic markers studied are unlikely to be useful for screening patients due to the low sensitivity and low positive predictive values for identifying persons at risk of liver injury.
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