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Framingham State University

EducationFramingham, Massachusetts, United States
About: Framingham State University is a education organization based out in Framingham, Massachusetts, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Fibonacci number. The organization has 317 authors who have published 515 publications receiving 7267 citations. The organization is also known as: Framingham State College.


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TL;DR: It is claimed that the premature inclusion of Gaming Disorder as a diagnosis in ICD-11 will cause significant stigma to the millions of children who play video games as a part of a normal, healthy life and the healthy majority of gamers will be affected negatively.
Abstract: Concerns about problematic gaming behaviors deserve our full attention. However, we claim that it is far from clear that these problems can or should be attributed to a new disorder. The empirical basis for a Gaming Disorder proposal, such as in the new ICD-11, suffers from fundamental issues. Our main concerns are the low quality of the research base, the fact that the current operationalization leans too heavily on substance use and gambling criteria, and the lack of consensus on symptomatology and assessment of problematic gaming. The act of formalizing this disorder, even as a proposal, has negative medical, scientific, public-health, societal, and human rights fallout that should be considered. Of particular concern are moral panics around the harm of video gaming. They might result in premature application of diagnosis in the medical community and the treatment of abundant false-positive cases, especially for children and adolescents. Second, research will be locked into a confirmatory approach, rather than an exploration of the boundaries of normal versus pathological. Third, the healthy majority of gamers will be affected negatively. We expect that the premature inclusion of Gaming Disorder as a diagnosis in ICD-11 will cause significant stigma to the millions of children who play video games as a part of a normal, healthy life. At this point, suggesting formal diagnoses and categories is premature: the ICD-11 proposal for Gaming Disorder should be removed to avoid a waste of public health resources as well as to avoid causing harm to healthy video gamers around the world.

414 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There could be benefits to formalizing gaming disorder, but they do not yet outweigh the wider societal and public health risks involved and the colleagues at the WHO are urged to err on the side of caution for now and postpone the formalization.
Abstract: We greatly appreciate the care and thought that is evident in the 10 commentaries that discuss our debate paper, the majority of which argued in favor of a formalized ICD-11 gaming disorder. We agree that there are some people whose play of video games is related to life problems. We believe that understanding this population and the nature and severity of the problems they experience should be a focus area for future research. However, moving from research construct to formal disorder requires a much stronger evidence base than we currently have. The burden of evidence and the clinical utility should be extremely high, because there is a genuine risk of abuse of diagnoses. We provide suggestions about the level of evidence that might be required: transparent and preregistered studies, a better demarcation of the subject area that includes a rationale for focusing on gaming particularly versus a more general behavioral addictions concept, the exploration of non-addiction approaches, and the unbiased exploration of clinical approaches that treat potentially underlying issues, such as depressive mood or social anxiety first. We acknowledge there could be benefits to formalizing gaming disorder, many of which were highlighted by colleagues in their commentaries, but we think they do not yet outweigh the wider societal and public health risks involved. Given the gravity of diagnostic classification and its wider societal impact, we urge our colleagues at the WHO to err on the side of caution for now and postpone the formalization.

219 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of the Fisher exact test and the chi-squared test with Yates's continuity correction for testing the equality of two independent binomial populations is often suggested for small and intermediate size samples.
Abstract: For testing the equality of two independent binomial populations the Fisher exact test and the chi-squared test with Yates's continuity correction are often suggested for small and intermediate size samples. The use of these tests is inappropriate in that they are extremely conservative. In this article we demonstrate that, even for small samples, the uncorrected chi-squared test (i.e., the Pearson chi-squared test) and the two-independent-sample t test are robust in that their actual significance levels are usually close to or smaller than the nominal levels. We encourage the use of these latter two tests.

201 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The findings support the use of herbarium records for understanding plant phenological responses to changes in temperature, and establish a new use ofHerbarium collections: inferring primary phenological cueing mechanisms of individual species.
Abstract: 6 PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Climate change has resulted in major changes in the phenology of some species but not others. Long-term fi eld observational records provide the best assessment of these changes, but geographic and taxonomic biases limit their utility. Plant specimens in herbaria have been hypothesized to provide a wealth of additional data for studying phenological responses to climatic change. However, no study to our knowledge has comprehensively addressed whether herbarium data are accurate measures of phenological response and thus applicable to addressing such questions. METHODS: We compared fl owering phenology determined from fi eld observations (years 1852-1858, 1875, 1878-1908, 2003-2006, 2011-2013) and her- barium records (1852-2013) of 20 species from New England, United States. KEY RESULTS: Earliest fl owering date estimated from herbarium records faithfully refl ected fi eld observations of fi rst fl owering date and substantially in- creased the sampling range across climatic conditions. Additionally, although most species demonstrated a response to interannual temperature varia- tion, long-term temporal changes in phenological response were not detectable. CONCLUSIONS: Our fi ndings support the use of herbarium records for understanding plant phenological responses to changes in temperature, and also importantly establish a new use of herbarium collections: inferring primary phenological cueing mechanisms of individual species (e.g., temperature, winter chilling, photoperiod). These latter data are lacking from most investigations of phenological change, but are vital for understanding diff erential responses of individual species to ongoing climate change.

185 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
20229
202137
202034
201929
201834
201738