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Institution

French Institute of Health and Medical Research

GovernmentParis, France
About: French Institute of Health and Medical Research is a government organization based out in Paris, France. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Receptor. The organization has 109367 authors who have published 174236 publications receiving 8365503 citations.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: ClUSTAL X is a new windows interface for the widely-used progressive multiple sequence alignment program CLUSTAL W, providing an integrated system for performing multiple sequence and profile alignments and analysing the results.
Abstract: CLUSTAL X is a new windows interface for the widely-used progressive multiple sequence alignment program CLUSTAL W. The new system is easy to use, providing an integrated system for performing multiple sequence and profile alignments and analysing the results. CLUSTAL X displays the sequence alignment in a window on the screen. A versatile sequence colouring scheme allows the user to highlight conserved features in the alignment. Pull-down menus provide all the options required for traditional multiple sequence and profile alignment. New features include: the ability to cut-and-paste sequences to change the order of the alignment, selection of a subset of the sequences to be realigned, and selection of a sub-range of the alignment to be realigned and inserted back into the original alignment. Alignment quality analysis can be performed and low-scoring segments or exceptional residues can be highlighted. Quality analysis and realignment of selected residue ranges provide the user with a powerful tool to improve and refine difficult alignments and to trap errors in input sequences. CLUSTAL X has been compiled on SUN Solaris, IRIX5.3 on Silicon Graphics, Digital UNIX on DECstations, Microsoft Windows (32 bit) for PCs, Linux ELF for x86 PCs, and Macintosh PowerMac.

38,522 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This document provides updated normal values for all four cardiac chambers, including three-dimensional echocardiography and myocardial deformation, when possible, on the basis of considerably larger numbers of normal subjects, compiled from multiple databases.
Abstract: The rapid technological developments of the past decade and the changes in echocardiographic practice brought about by these developments have resulted in the need for updated recommendations to the previously published guidelines for cardiac chamber quantification, which was the goal of the joint writing group assembled by the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. This document provides updated normal values for all four cardiac chambers, including three-dimensional echocardiography and myocardial deformation, when possible, on the basis of considerably larger numbers of normal subjects, compiled from multiple databases. In addition, this document attempts to eliminate several minor discrepancies that existed between previously published guidelines.

11,568 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 1988-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) is presented.
Abstract: Deposits of clastic carbonate-dominated (calciclastic) sedimentary slope systems in the rock record have been identified mostly as linearly-consistent carbonate apron deposits, even though most ancient clastic carbonate slope deposits fit the submarine fan systems better. Calciclastic submarine fans are consequently rarely described and are poorly understood. Subsequently, very little is known especially in mud-dominated calciclastic submarine fan systems. Presented in this study are a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) that reveals a >250 m thick calciturbidite complex deposited in a calciclastic submarine fan setting. Seven facies are recognised from core and thin section characterisation and are grouped into three carbonate turbidite sequences. They include: 1) Calciturbidites, comprising mostly of highto low-density, wavy-laminated bioclast-rich facies; 2) low-density densite mudstones which are characterised by planar laminated and unlaminated muddominated facies; and 3) Calcidebrites which are muddy or hyper-concentrated debrisflow deposits occurring as poorly-sorted, chaotic, mud-supported floatstones. These

9,929 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
28 Aug 2019-BMJ
TL;DR: The Cochrane risk-of-bias tool has been updated to respond to developments in understanding how bias arises in randomised trials, and to address user feedback on and limitations of the original tool.
Abstract: Assessment of risk of bias is regarded as an essential component of a systematic review on the effects of an intervention. The most commonly used tool for randomised trials is the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. We updated the tool to respond to developments in understanding how bias arises in randomised trials, and to address user feedback on and limitations of the original tool.

9,228 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Ludmil B. Alexandrov1, Serena Nik-Zainal2, Serena Nik-Zainal3, David C. Wedge1, Samuel Aparicio4, Sam Behjati1, Sam Behjati5, Andrew V. Biankin, Graham R. Bignell1, Niccolo Bolli5, Niccolo Bolli1, Åke Borg3, Anne Lise Børresen-Dale6, Anne Lise Børresen-Dale7, Sandrine Boyault8, Birgit Burkhardt8, Adam Butler1, Carlos Caldas9, Helen Davies1, Christine Desmedt, Roland Eils5, Jorunn E. Eyfjord10, John A. Foekens11, Mel Greaves12, Fumie Hosoda13, Barbara Hutter5, Tomislav Ilicic1, Sandrine Imbeaud14, Sandrine Imbeaud15, Marcin Imielinsk15, Natalie Jäger5, David T. W. Jones16, David T. Jones1, Stian Knappskog17, Stian Knappskog11, Marcel Kool11, Sunil R. Lakhani18, Carlos López-Otín18, Sancha Martin1, Nikhil C. Munshi19, Nikhil C. Munshi20, Hiromi Nakamura13, Paul A. Northcott16, Marina Pajic21, Elli Papaemmanuil1, Angelo Paradiso22, John V. Pearson23, Xose S. Puente18, Keiran Raine1, Manasa Ramakrishna1, Andrea L. Richardson22, Andrea L. Richardson19, Julia Richter22, Philip Rosenstiel22, Matthias Schlesner5, Ton N. Schumacher24, Paul N. Span25, Jon W. Teague1, Yasushi Totoki13, Andrew Tutt24, Rafael Valdés-Mas18, Marit M. van Buuren25, Laura van ’t Veer26, Anne Vincent-Salomon27, Nicola Waddell23, Lucy R. Yates1, Icgc PedBrain24, Jessica Zucman-Rossi14, Jessica Zucman-Rossi15, P. Andrew Futreal1, Ultan McDermott1, Peter Lichter24, Matthew Meyerson15, Matthew Meyerson19, Sean M. Grimmond23, Reiner Siebert22, Elias Campo28, Tatsuhiro Shibata13, Stefan M. Pfister11, Stefan M. Pfister16, Peter J. Campbell29, Peter J. Campbell2, Peter J. Campbell30, Michael R. Stratton31, Michael R. Stratton2 
22 Aug 2013-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, ‘kataegis’, is found in many cancer types, and this results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer.
Abstract: All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single cancer class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, 'kataegis', is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer, with potential implications for understanding of cancer aetiology, prevention and therapy.

7,904 citations


Authors

Showing all 109539 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Guido Kroemer2361404246571
Pierre Chambon211884161565
Peer Bork206697245427
Ronald M. Evans199708166722
Raymond J. Dolan196919138540
Matthew Meyerson194553243726
Charles A. Dinarello1901058139668
Julie E. Buring186950132967
Tadamitsu Kishimoto1811067130860
Didier Raoult1733267153016
Giuseppe Remuzzi1721226160440
Zena Werb168473122629
Nahum Sonenberg167647104053
Philippe Froguel166820118816
Gordon J. Freeman164579105193
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202368
2022306
20217,549
20207,367
20196,969
20186,607