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Institution

Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society

FacilityBerlin, Germany
About: Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society is a(n) facility organization based out in Berlin, Germany. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Catalysis & Adsorption. The organization has 3490 authors who have published 5017 publication(s) receiving 183731 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that the effective atomic C6 coefficients depend strongly on the bonding environment of an atom in a molecule, and the van der Waals radii and the damping function in the C6R(-6) correction method for density-functional theory calculations.
Abstract: We present a parameter-free method for an accurate determination of long-range van der Waals interactions from mean-field electronic structure calculations. Our method relies on the summation of interatomic C6 coefficients, derived from the electron density of a molecule or solid and accurate reference data for the free atoms. The mean absolute error in the C6 coefficients is 5.5% when compared to accurate experimental values for 1225 intermolecular pairs, irrespective of the employed exchangecorrelation functional. We show that the effective atomic C6 coefficients depend strongly on the bonding environment of an atom in a molecule. Finally, we analyze the van der Waals radii and the damping function in the C6R � 6 correction method for density-functional theory calculations.

4,030 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A complete atomic model for bacteriorhodopsin between amino acid residues 8 and 225 has been built and suggests that pK changes in the Schiff base must act as the means by which light energy is converted into proton pumping pressure in the channel.
Abstract: The light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin occurs naturally as two-dimensional crystals. A three-dimensional density map of the structure, at near-atomic resolution, has been obtained by studying the crystals using electron cryo-microscopy to obtain electron diffraction patterns and high-resolution micrographs. New methods were developed for analysing micrographs from tilted specimens, incorporating methods previously developed for untilted specimens that enable large areas to be analysed and corrected for distortions. Data from 72 images, from both tilted and untilted specimens, were analysed to produce the phases of 2700 independent Fourier components of the structure. The amplitudes of these components were accurately measured from 150 diffraction patterns. Together, these data represent about half of the full three-dimensional transform to 3.5 A. The map of the structure has a resolution of 3.5 A in a direction parallel to the membrane plane but lower than this in the perpendicular direction. It shows many features in the density that are resolved from the main density of the seven alpha-helices. We interpret these features as the bulky aromatic side-chains of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan residues. There is also a very dense feature, which is the beta-ionone ring of the retinal chromophore. Using these bulky side-chains as guide points and taking account of bulges in the helices that indicate smaller side-chains such as leucine, a complete atomic model for bacteriorhodopsin between amino acid residues 8 and 225 has been built. There are 21 amino acid residues, contributed by all seven helices, surrounding the retinal and 26 residues, contributed by five helices, forming the proton pathway or channel. Ten of the amino acid residues in the middle of the proton channel are also part of the retinal binding site. The model also provides a useful basis for consideration of the mechanism of proton pumping and allows a consistent interpretation of a great deal of other experimental data. In particular, the structure suggests that pK changes in the Schiff base must act as the means by which light energy is converted into proton pumping pressure in the channel. Asp96 is on the pathway from the cytoplasm to the Schiff base and Asp85 is on the pathway from the Schiff base to the extracellular surface.

2,732 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Graphitic carbon nitride, g-C3N4, can be made by polymerization of cyanamide, dicyandiamide or melamine. Depending on reaction conditions, different materials with different degrees of condensation, properties and reactivities are obtained. The firstly formed polymeric C3N4 structure, melon, with pendant amino groups, is a highly ordered polymer. Further reaction leads to more condensed and less defective C3N4 species, based on tri-s-triazine (C6N7) units as elementary building blocks. High resolution transmission electron microscopy proves the extended two-dimensional character of the condensation motif. Due to the polymerization-type synthesis from a liquid precursor, a variety of material nanostructures such as nanoparticles or mesoporous powders can be accessed. Those nanostructures also allow fine tuning of properties, the ability for intercalation, as well as the possibility to give surface-rich materials for heterogeneous reactions. Due to the special semiconductor properties of carbon nitrides, they show unexpected catalytic activity for a variety of reactions, such as for the activation of benzene, trimerization reactions, and also the activation of carbon dioxide. Model calculations are presented to explain this unusual case of heterogeneous, metal-free catalysis. Carbon nitride can also act as a heterogeneous reactant, and a new family of metal nitride nanostructures can be accessed from the corresponding oxides.

2,347 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
18 May 2012-Science
TL;DR: This work shows how to identify the crucial atomic structure motif for the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalyst by using a combination of experimental evidence from bulk, surface-sensitive, and imaging methods collected on real high-performance catalytic systems in combination with density functional theory calculations.
Abstract: Unlike homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts that have been optimized through decades are typically so complex and hard to characterize that the nature of the catalytically active site is not known. This is one of the main stumbling blocks in developing rational catalyst design strategies in heterogeneous catalysis. We show here how to identify the crucial atomic structure motif for the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol synthesis catalyst. Using a combination of experimental evidence from bulk-, surface-sensitive and imaging methods collected on real high-performance catalytic systems in combination with DFT calculations. We show that the active site consists of Cu steps peppered with Zn atoms, all stabilized by a series of well defined bulk defects and surface species that need jointly to be present for the system to work.

1,541 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Using density-functional theory we calculate the Gibbs free energy to determine the lowest-energy structure of a ${\mathrm{RuO}}_{2}(110)$ surface in thermodynamic equilibrium with an oxygen-rich environment. The traditionally assumed stoichiometric termination is only found to be favorable at low oxygen chemical potentials, i.e., low pressures and/or high temperatures. At a realistic O pressure, the surface is predicted to contain additional terminal O atoms. Although this O excess defines a so-called polar surface, we show that the prevalent ionic model, that dismisses such terminations on electrostatic grounds, is of little validity for ${\mathrm{RuO}}_{2}(110).$ Together with analogous results obtained previously at the (0001) surface of corundum-structured oxides, these findings on (110) rutile indicate that the stability of nonstoichiometric terminations is a more general phenomenon of transition metal oxide surfaces.

1,440 citations


Authors

Showing all 3490 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Jens K. Nørskov184706146151
Qiang Zhang1611137100950
William A. Goddard1511653123322
Matthias Scheffler12575261011
Tao Zhang123277283866
Gerhard Ertl12072057560
James A. Dumesic11861558935
Angel Rubio11093052731
Pavel Hobza10756448080
Hans-Joachim Freund10696246693
Xinhe Bao10382846524
Peter Strasser10035737374
Dang Sheng Su9961536117
Robert Schlögl9270633795
Gianfranco Pacchioni9162232262
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
20224
2021242
2020235
2019209
2018173
2017139