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Georgetown University

EducationWashington D.C., District of Columbia, United States
About: Georgetown University is a(n) education organization based out in Washington D.C., District of Columbia, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Breast cancer. The organization has 23377 authors who have published 43718 publication(s) receiving 1748598 citation(s). The organization is also known as: GU & Georgetown.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Robert M. Grant1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Given assumptions about the characteristics of knowledge and the knowledge requirements of production, the firm is conceptualized as an institution for integrating knowledge. The primary contribution of the paper is in exploring the coordination mechanisms through which firms integrate the specialist knowledge of their members. In contrast to earlier literature, knowledge is viewed as residing within the individual, and the primary role of the organization is knowledge application rather than knowledge creation. The resulting theory has implications for the basis of organizational capability, the principles of organization design (in particular, the analysis of hierarchy and the distribution of decision-making authority), and the determinants of the horizontal and vertical boundaries of the firm. More generally, the knowledge-based approach sheds new light upon current organizational innovations and trends and has far-reaching implications for management practice.

10,898 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Thomas Donaldson1, Lee E. Preston2Institutions (2)
Abstract: ?The stakeholder theory has been advanced and justified in the management literature on the basis of its descriptive accuracy, instrumental power, and normative validity. These three aspects of the theory, although interrelated, are quite distinct; they involve different types of evidence and argument and have different implications. In this article, we examine these three aspects of the theory and critique and integrate important contributions to the literature related to each. We conclude that the three aspects of stakeholder theory are mutually supportive and that the normative base of the theory-which includes the modern theory of property rights-is fundamental. If the unity of the corporate body is real, then there is reality and not simply legal fiction in the proposition that the managers of the unit are fiduciaries for it and not merely for its individual members, that they are . . . trustees for an institution [with multiple constituents] rather than attorneys for the stockholders.

9,532 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In patients with chronic hepatitis C, the most effective therapy is the combination of peginterferon alfa-2b 1.5 microg/kg per week plus ribavirin, and this randomised trial found that the benefit is mostly achieved in patients with HCV genotype 1 infections.
Abstract: Summary Background A sustained virological response (SVR) rate of 41% has been achieved with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin therapy of chronic hepatitis C. In this randomised trial, peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin was compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin. Methods 1530 patients with chronic hepatitis C were assigned interferon alfa-2b (3 MU subcutaneously three times per week) plus ribavirin 1000–1200 mg/day orally, peginterferon alfa-2b 15 μg/kg each week plus 800 mg/day ribavirin, or peginterferon alfa-2b 1·5 μg/kg per week for 4 weeks then 0·5 μg/kg per week plus ribavirin 1000–1200 mg/day for 48 weeks. The primary endpoint was the SVR rate (undetectable hepatitis C virus [HCV] RNA in serum at 24-week follow-up). Analyses were based on patients who received at least one dose of study medication. Findings The SVR rate was significantly higher (p=0·01 for both comparisons) in the higher-dose peginterferon group (274/511 [54%]) than in the lower-dose peginterferon (244/514 [47%]) or interferon (235/505 [47%]) groups. Among patients with HCV genotype 1 infection, the corresponding SVR rates were 42% (145/348), 34% (118/349), and 33% (114/343). The rate for patients with genotype 2 and 3 infections was about 80% for all treatment groups. Secondary analyses identified bodyweight as an important predictor of SVR, prompting comparison of the interferon regimens after adjusting ribavirin for bodyweight (mg/kg). Side-effect profiles were similar between the treatment groups. Interpretation In patients with chronic hepatitis C, the most effective therapy is the combination of peginterferon alfa-2b 1·5 μg/kg per week plus ribavirin. The benefit is mostly achieved in patients with HCV genotype 1 infections.

6,172 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Daniel J. McAllister1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This study addressed the nature and functioning of relationships of interpersonal trust among managers and professionals in organizations, the factors influencing trust's development, and the implications of trust for behavior and performance Theoretical foundations were drawn from the sociological literature on trust and the social-psychological literature on trust in close relationships An initial test of the proposed theoretical framework was conducted in a field setting with 194 managers and professionals

5,981 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Louis Sokoloff1, Martin Reivich2, Charles Kennedy3, Charles Kennedy1  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
TL;DR: The method can be applied to most laboratory animals in the conscious state and is based on the use of 2‐deoxy‐D‐[14C]glucose as a tracer for the exchange of glucose between plasma and brain and its phosphorylation by hexokinase in the tissues.
Abstract: — A method has been developed for the simultaneous measurement of the rates of glucose consumption in the various structural and functional components of the brain in vivo. The method can be applied to most laboratory animals in the conscious state. It is based on the use of 2-deoxy-D-[14C]glucose ([14C]DG) as a tracer for the exchange of glucose between plasma and brain and its phosphorylation by hexokinase in the tissues. [14C]DG is used because the label in its product, [14C]deoxyglucose-6-phosphate, is essentially trapped in the tissue over the time course of the measurement. A model has been designed based on the assumptions of a steady state for glucose consumption, a first order equilibration of the free [14C]DG pool in the tissue with the plasma level, and relative rates of phosphorylation of [14C]DG and glucose determined by their relative concentrations in the precursor pools and their respective kinetic constants for the hexokinase reaction. An operational equation based on this model has been derived in terms of determinable variables. A pulse of [14C]DG is administered intravenously and the arterial plasma [14C]DG and glucose concentrations monitored for a preset time between 30 and 45min. At the prescribed time, the head is removed and frozen in liquid N2-chilled Freon XII, and the brain sectioned for autoradiography. Local tissue concentrations of [14C]DG are determined by quantitative autoradiography. Local cerebral glucose consumption is calculated by the equation on the basis of these measured values. The method has been applied to normal albino rats in the conscious state and under thiopental anesthesia. The results demonstrate that the local rates of glucose consumption in the brain fall into two distinct distributions, one for gray matter and the other for white matter. In the conscious rat the values in the gray matter vary widely from structure to structure (54-197 μmol/100 g/min) with the highest values in structures related to auditory function, e.g. medial geniculate body, superior olive, inferior colliculus, and auditory cortex. The values in white matter are more uniform (i.e. 33–40 μmo1/100 g/min) at levels approximately one-fourth to one-half those of gray matter. Heterogeneous rates of glucose consumption are frequently seen within specific structures, often revealing a pattern of cytoarchitecture. Thiopental anesthesia markedly depresses the rates of glucose utilization throughout the brain, particularly in gray matter, and metabolic rate throughout gray matter becomes more uniform at a lower level.

5,895 citations


Showing all 23377 results

Cyrus Cooper2041869206782
David Cella1561258106402
Carl H. June15683598904
Ichiro Kawachi149121690282
Judy Garber14775679157
Bernard J. Gersh14697395875
Edward G. Lakatta14685888637
Eugene C. Butcher14644672849
Mark A. Rubin14569995640
Richard B. Devereux144962116403
Robert H. Purcell13966670366
Eric P. Winer13975171587
Richard L. Huganir13742561023
Rasmus Nielsen13555684898
Henry T. Lynch13392586270
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