Government•New Delhi, India•
About: Government of India is a government organization based out in New Delhi, India. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Dielectric. The organization has 2945 authors who have published 2999 publications receiving 44942 citations. The organization is also known as: Union Government & Central Government.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and contaminants, with a view to recommending Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADIs) and tolerable intakes, respectively, and to prepare specifications for the identity and purity of food additives.
Abstract: This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The Committee also evaluated the risk posed by two food contaminants, with the aim of advising on risk management options for the purpose of public health protection. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular flavouring agents) and contaminants. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (acidified sodium chlorite, asparaginase from Aspergillus oryzae expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed, cyclotetraglucose and cyclotetraglucose syrup, isoamylase from Pseudomonas amyloderamosa, magnesium sulfate, phospholipase A1 from Fusarium venenatum expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, sodium iron(III) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and steviol glycosides); eight groups of related flavouring agents (linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; aliphatic acyclic dials, trials and related substances; aliphatic acetals; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; and aliphatic alicyclic linear alpha, beta -unsaturated di- and trienals and related alcohols, acids and esters); and two food contaminants (aflatoxin and ochratoxin A). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: maltol and ethyl maltol, nisin preparation, pectins, polyvinyl alcohol, and sucrose esters of fatty acids. Specifications for the following flavouring agents were revised: maltol and ethyl maltol, maltyl isobutyrate, 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylfuran and 2,4,5-trimethyl-delta-oxazoline (Nos 1482, 1506 and 1559), and monomenthyl glutarate (No. 1414), as well as the method of assay for the sodium salts of certain flavouring agents. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for intakes and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminants considered.
TL;DR: In this paper, the current state of human resources for mental health, needs, and strategies for action are reviewed, and the authors also discuss scale-up costs, human resources management, and leadership for Mental Health, particularly within the context of low-income and middle-income countries.
Abstract: A challenge faced by many countries is to provide adequate human resources for delivery of essential mental health interventions. The overwhelming worldwide shortage of human resources for mental health, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries, is well established. Here, we review the current state of human resources for mental health, needs, and strategies for action. At present, human resources for mental health in countries of low and middle income show a serious shortfall that is likely to grow unless effective steps are taken. Evidence suggests that mental health care can be delivered effectively in primary health-care settings, through community-based programmes and task-shifting approaches. Non-specialist health professionals, lay workers, affected individuals, and caregivers with brief training and appropriate supervision by mental health specialists are able to detect, diagnose, treat, and monitor individuals with mental disorders and reduce caregiver burden. We also discuss scale-up costs, human resources management, and leadership for mental health, particularly within the context of low-income and middle-income countries.
TL;DR: Reduced vision because of uncorrected refractive error is a major public health problem in urban school-aged children in India and cost-effective strategies are needed to eliminate this easily treated cause of vision impairment.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of refractive error and related visual impairment in school-aged children in an urban population in New Delhi, India. METHODS: Random selection of geographically defined clusters was used to identify a sample of children 5 to 15 years of age. From December 2000 through March 2001, children in 22 selected clusters were enumerated through a door-to-door survey and examined at a local facility. The examination included visual acuity measurements, ocular motility evaluation, retinoscopy and autorefraction under cycloplegia, and examination of the anterior segment, media, and fundus. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent refractive error of at least -0.50 D and hyperopia as +2.00 D or more. Children with reduced vision and a sample of those with normal vision underwent independent replicate examinations for quality assurance in four of the clusters. RESULTS: A total of 7008 children from 3426 households were enumerated, and 6447 (92.0%) examined. The prevalence of uncorrected, baseline (presenting), and best corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye was 6.4%, 4.9%, and 0.81%, respectively. Refractive error was the cause in 81.7% of eyes with vision impairment, amblyopia in 4.4%, retinal disorders in 4.7%, other causes in 3.3%, and unexplained causes in the remaining 5.9%. There was an age-related shift in refractive error from hyperopia in young children (15.6% in 5-year-olds) toward myopia in older children (10.8% in 15-year-olds). Overall, hyperopia was present in 7.7% of children and myopia in 7.4%. Hyperopia was associated with female gender. Myopia was more common in children of fathers with higher levels of education. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced vision because of uncorrected refractive error is a major public health problem in urban school-aged children in India. Cost-effective strategies are needed to eliminate this easily treated cause of vision impairment.
TL;DR: In this paper, the Piper and expanded Durov diagrams are replaced with a new diagram, which is constructed by plotting the difference in milliequivalent percentage between alkaline earths and alkali metals.
Abstract: A new hydrochemical diagram is proposed for classification of natural waters and identification of hydrochemical processes. The proposed diagram differs from the Piper and expanded Durov diagrams in that the two equilateral triangles are omitted, and the shape of the main study field is different. In addition, the proposed diagram can be constructed on most spreadsheet software packages. The proposed diagram is constructed by plotting the difference in milliequivalent percentage between alkaline earths and alkali metals, expressed as percentage reacting values, on the X axis; and the difference in milliequivalent percentage between weak acidic anions and strong acidic anions, also expressed as percentage reacting values, on the Y axis. The milliequivalent percentage differences from the X and Y co-ordinates are extended further into the main study sub-fields of the proposed diagram, which defines the overall character of water. Examples of hydrochemical analyses of groundwater are given from Karnataka, India, for each of the three types of diagrams, illustrating the applicability of the proposed diagram in four case histories having different hydrogeochemical aspects. A comparison indicates that the proposed new diagram satisfies the basic requirement for a suitable classification of natural waters, and it also can be effectively used for studies of hydrochemical processes.
TL;DR: Teams of providers are the efficient option, creating the possibility of scaling up as much as 10 times more quickly than would be the case with deployment of solo health workers in home deliveries with dedicated or multipurpose workers.
Abstract: Because most women prefer professionally provided maternity care when they have access to it, and since the needed clinical interventions are well known, we discuss in their paper what is needed to move forward from apparent global stagnation in provision and use of maternal health care where maternal mortality is high. The main obstacles to the expansion of care are the dire scarcity of skilled providers and health-system infrastructure, substandard quality of care, and women's reluctance to use maternity care where there are high costs and poorly attuned services. To increase the supply of professional skilled birthing care, strategic decisions must be made in three areas: training, deployment, and retention of health workers. Based on results from simulations, teams of midwives and midwife assistants working in facilities could increase coverage of maternity care by up to 40% by 2015. Teams of providers are the efficient option, creating the possibility of scaling up as much as 10 times more quickly than would be the case with deployment of solo health workers in home deliveries with dedicated or multipurpose workers.
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|S. V. Subramanian||72||444||17132|
|Pulok K. Mukherjee||54||296||10873|
|Maharaj K. Bhan||53||207||11841|
|Dipak Kumar Sahoo||47||234||7293|
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