scispace - formally typeset
Institution

Harvard University

EducationCambridge, Massachusetts, United States
About: Harvard University is a(n) education organization based out in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Cancer. The organization has 208150 authors who have published 530388 publication(s) receiving 38152182 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Harvard & University of Harvard.
Papers
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The dynamic capabilities framework analyzes the sources and methods of wealth creation and capture by private enterprise firms operating in environments of rapid technological change. The competitive advantage of firms is seen as resting on distinctive processes (ways of coordinating and combining), shaped by the firm's (specific) asset positions (such as the firm's portfolio of difftcult-to- trade knowledge assets and complementary assets), and the evolution path(s) it has aflopted or inherited. The importance of path dependencies is amplified where conditions of increasing retums exist. Whether and how a firm's competitive advantage is eroded depends on the stability of market demand, and the ease of replicability (expanding intemally) and imitatability (replication by competitors). If correct, the framework suggests that private wealth creation in regimes of rapid technological change depends in large measure on honing intemal technological, organizational, and managerial processes inside the firm. In short, identifying new opportunities and organizing effectively and efficiently to embrace them are generally more fundamental to private wealth creation than is strategizing, if by strategizing one means engaging in business conduct that keeps competitors off balance, raises rival's costs, and excludes new entrants. © 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

25,469 citations


1


Book
01 Jan 2000-
Abstract: BOWLING ALONE warns Americans that their stock of "social capital", the very fabric of their connections with each other, has been accelerating down. Putnam describes the resulting impoverishment of their lives and communities. Drawing on evidence that includes nearly half a million interviews conducted over a quarter of a century in America, Putnam shows how changes in work, family structure, age, suburban life, television, computers, women's roles and other factors are isolating Americans from each other in a trend whose reflection can clearly be seen in British society. We sign 30 percent fewer petitions than we did ten years ago. Membership in organisations- from the Boy Scouts to political parties and the Church is falling. Ties with friends and relatives are fraying: we're 35 percent less likely to visit our neighbours or have dinner with our families than we were thirty years ago. We watch sport alone instead of with our friends. A century ago, American citizens' means of connecting were at a low point after decades of urbanisation, industrialisation and immigration uprooted them from families and friends. That generation demonstrated a capacity for renewal by creating the organisations that pulled Americans together. Putnam shows how we can learn from them and reinvent common enterprises that will make us secure, productive, happy and hopeful.

24,500 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The stain reported here differs from previous alkaline lead stains in that the chelating agent, citrate, is in sufficient excess to sequester all lead present, and is less likely to contaminate sections.
Abstract: Aqueous solutions of lead salts (1, 2) and saturated solutions of lead hydroxide (1) have been used as stains to enhance the electron-scattering properties of components of biological materials examined in the electron microscope. Saturated solutions of lead hydroxide (1), while staining more intensely than either lead acetate or monobasic lead acetate (l , 2), form insoluble lead carbonate upon exposure to air. The avoidance of such precipitates which contaminate surfaces of sections during staining has been the stimulus for the development of elaborate procedures for exclusion of air or carbon dioxide (3, 4). Several modifications of Watson's lead hydroxide stain (1) have recently appeared (5-7). All utilize relatively high pH (approximately 12) and one contains small amounts of tartrate (6), a relatively weak complexing agent (8), in addition to lead. These modified lead stains are less liable to contaminate the surface of the section with precipitated stain products. The stain reported here differs from previous alkaline lead stains in that the chelating agent, citrate, is in sufficient excess to sequester all lead present. Lead citrate, soluble in high concentrations in basic solutions, is a chelate compound with an apparent association constant (log Ka) between ligand and lead ion of 6.5 (9). Tissue binding sites, presumably organophosphates, and other anionic species present in biological components following fixation, dehydration, and plastic embedding apparently have a greater affinity for this cation than lead citrate inasmuch as cellular and extracellular structures in the section sequester lead from the staining solution. Alkaline lead citrate solutions are less likely to contaminate sections, as no precipitates form when droplets of fresh staining solution are exposed to air for periods of up to 30 minutes. The resultant staining of the sections is of high intensity in sections of Aralditeor Epon-embedded material. Cytoplasmic membranes, ribosomes, glycogen, and nuclear material are stained (Figs. 1 to 3). STAIN SOLUTION: Lead citrate is prepared by

23,718 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A nonlinear (nonconvex) programming model provides a new definition of efficiency for use in evaluating activities of not-for-profit entities participating in public programs and methods for objectively determining weights by reference to the observational data for the multiple outputs and multiple inputs that characterize such programs.
Abstract: A nonlinear (nonconvex) programming model provides a new definition of efficiency for use in evaluating activities of not-for-profit entities participating in public programs. A scalar measure of the efficiency of each participating unit is thereby provided, along with methods for objectively determining weights by reference to the observational data for the multiple outputs and multiple inputs that characterize such programs. Equivalences are established to ordinary linear programming models for effecting computations. The duals to these linear programming models provide a new way for estimating extremal relations from observational data. Connections between engineering and economic approaches to efficiency are delineated along with new interpretations and ways of using them in evaluating and controlling managerial behavior in public programs.

22,924 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work introduces PLINK, an open-source C/C++ WGAS tool set, and describes the five main domains of function: data management, summary statistics, population stratification, association analysis, and identity-by-descent estimation, which focuses on the estimation and use of identity- by-state and identity/descent information in the context of population-based whole-genome studies.
Abstract: Whole-genome association studies (WGAS) bring new computational, as well as analytic, challenges to researchers. Many existing genetic-analysis tools are not designed to handle such large data sets in a convenient manner and do not necessarily exploit the new opportunities that whole-genome data bring. To address these issues, we developed PLINK, an open-source C/C++ WGAS tool set. With PLINK, large data sets comprising hundreds of thousands of markers genotyped for thousands of individuals can be rapidly manipulated and analyzed in their entirety. As well as providing tools to make the basic analytic steps computationally efficient, PLINK also supports some novel approaches to whole-genome data that take advantage of whole-genome coverage. We introduce PLINK and describe the five main domains of function: data management, summary statistics, population stratification, association analysis, and identity-by-descent estimation. In particular, we focus on the estimation and use of identity-by-state and identity-by-descent information in the context of population-based whole-genome studies. This information can be used to detect and correct for population stratification and to identify extended chromosomal segments that are shared identical by descent between very distantly related individuals. Analysis of the patterns of segmental sharing has the potential to map disease loci that contain multiple rare variants in a population-based linkage analysis.

22,115 citations


Authors

Showing all 208150 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Walter C. Willett3342399413322
Eric S. Lander301826525976
Robert Langer2812324326306
Meir J. Stampfer2771414283776
Ronald C. Kessler2741332328983
JoAnn E. Manson2701819258509
Albert Hofman2672530321405
Graham A. Colditz2611542256034
Frank B. Hu2501675253464
Bert Vogelstein247757332094
George M. Whitesides2401739269833
Paul M. Ridker2331242245097
Richard A. Flavell2311328205119
Eugene Braunwald2301711264576
Ralph B. D'Agostino2261287229636
Network Information
Related Institutions (5)
Yale University

220.6K papers, 12.8M citations

98% related

Johns Hopkins University

249.2K papers, 14M citations

98% related

Columbia University

224K papers, 12.8M citations

98% related

Boston University

119.6K papers, 6.2M citations

98% related

Duke University

200.3K papers, 10.7M citations

97% related

Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
2022294
202130,491
202029,817
201926,010
201823,929
201725,232

Top Attributes

Show by:

Institution's top 5 most impactful journals

Social Science Research Network

12.1K papers, 756.9K citations

The Astrophysical Journal

8.8K papers, 828.9K citations

bioRxiv

5.7K papers, 38.9K citations

Nature

4.9K papers, 1.7M citations