scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

Hiroshima University

EducationHiroshima, Japan
About: Hiroshima University is a education organization based out in Hiroshima, Japan. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Cancer. The organization has 33602 authors who have published 69290 publications receiving 1495648 citations. The organization is also known as: Hiroshima Daigaku.

More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
Clotilde Théry1, Kenneth W. Witwer2, Elena Aikawa3, María José Alcaraz4  +414 moreInstitutions (209)
TL;DR: The MISEV2018 guidelines include tables and outlines of suggested protocols and steps to follow to document specific EV-associated functional activities, and a checklist is provided with summaries of key points.
Abstract: The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the number of scientific publications describing physiological and pathological functions of extracellular vesicles (EVs), a collective term covering various subtypes of cell-released, membranous structures, called exosomes, microvesicles, microparticles, ectosomes, oncosomes, apoptotic bodies, and many other names. However, specific issues arise when working with these entities, whose size and amount often make them difficult to obtain as relatively pure preparations, and to characterize properly. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) proposed Minimal Information for Studies of Extracellular Vesicles (“MISEV”) guidelines for the field in 2014. We now update these “MISEV2014” guidelines based on evolution of the collective knowledge in the last four years. An important point to consider is that ascribing a specific function to EVs in general, or to subtypes of EVs, requires reporting of specific information beyond mere description of function in a crude, potentially contaminated, and heterogeneous preparation. For example, claims that exosomes are endowed with exquisite and specific activities remain difficult to support experimentally, given our still limited knowledge of their specific molecular machineries of biogenesis and release, as compared with other biophysically similar EVs. The MISEV2018 guidelines include tables and outlines of suggested protocols and steps to follow to document specific EV-associated functional activities. Finally, a checklist is provided with summaries of key points.

5,988 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
09 Apr 1998-Nature
TL;DR: Mutations in the newly identified gene appear to be responsible for the pathogenesis of Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism, and the protein product is named ‘Parkin’.
Abstract: Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease with complex clinical features1. Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP)2,3 maps to the long arm of chromosome 6 (6q25.2-q27) and is linked strongly to the markers D6S305 and D6S253 (ref. 4); the former is deleted in one Japanese AR-JP patient5. By positional cloning within this microdeletion, we have now isolated a complementary DNA clone of 2,960 base pairs with a 1,395-base-pair open reading frame, encoding a protein of 465 amino acids with moderate similarity to ubiquitin at the amino terminus and a RING-finger motif at the carboxy terminus. The gene spans more than 500 kilobases and has 12 exons, five of which (exons 3–7) are deleted in the patient. Four other AR-JP patients from three unrelated families have a deletion affecting exon 4 alone. A 4.5-kilobase transcript that is expressed in many human tissues but is abundant in the brain, including the substantia nigra, is shorter in brain tissue from one of the groups of exon-4-deleted patients. Mutations in the newly identified gene appear to be responsible for the pathogenesis of AR-JP, and we have therefore named the protein product ‘Parkin’.

4,922 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These guidelines are presented for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.

4,316 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
W. B. Atwood1, A. A. Abdo2, A. A. Abdo3, Markus Ackermann4  +289 moreInstitutions (37)
TL;DR: The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT) as mentioned in this paper is the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, which is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy gamma-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV.
Abstract: (Abridged) The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy gamma-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. This paper describes the LAT, its pre-flight expected performance, and summarizes the key science objectives that will be addressed. On-orbit performance will be presented in detail in a subsequent paper. The LAT is a pair-conversion telescope with a precision tracker and calorimeter, each consisting of a 4x4 array of 16 modules, a segmented anticoincidence detector that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. Each tracker module has a vertical stack of 18 x,y tracking planes, including two layers (x and y) of single-sided silicon strip detectors and high-Z converter material (tungsten) per tray. Every calorimeter module has 96 CsI(Tl) crystals, arranged in an 8 layer hodoscopic configuration with a total depth of 8.6 radiation lengths. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4 allowing a large field-of-view (2.4 sr). Data obtained with the LAT are intended to (i) permit rapid notification of high-energy gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and transients and facilitate monitoring of variable sources, (ii) yield an extensive catalog of several thousand high-energy sources obtained from an all-sky survey, (iii) measure spectra from 20 MeV to more than 50 GeV for several hundred sources, (iv) localize point sources to 0.3 - 2 arc minutes, (v) map and obtain spectra of extended sources such as SNRs, molecular clouds, and nearby galaxies, (vi) measure the diffuse isotropic gamma-ray background up to TeV energies, and (vii) explore the discovery space for dark matter.

3,666 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Peter Goldstraw1, Kari Chansky, John Crowley, Ramón Rami-Porta2, Hisao Asamura3, Wilfried Ernst Erich Eberhardt4, Andrew G. Nicholson1, Patti A. Groome5, Alan Mitchell, Vanessa Bolejack, David Ball6, David G. Beer7, Ricardo Beyruti8, Frank C. Detterbeck9, Wilfried Eberhardt4, John G. Edwards10, Françoise Galateau-Salle11, Dorothy Giroux12, Fergus V. Gleeson13, James Huang14, Catherine Kennedy15, Jhingook Kim16, Young Tae Kim17, Laura Kingsbury12, Haruhiko Kondo18, Mark Krasnik19, Kaoru Kubota20, Antoon Lerut21, Gustavo Lyons, Mirella Marino, Edith M. Marom22, Jan P. van Meerbeeck23, Takashi Nakano24, Anna K. Nowak25, Michael D Peake26, Thomas W. Rice27, Kenneth E. Rosenzweig28, Enrico Ruffini29, Valerie W. Rusch14, Nagahiro Saijo, Paul Van Schil23, Jean-Paul Sculier30, Lynn Shemanski12, Kelly G. Stratton12, Kenji Suzuki31, Yuji Tachimori32, Charles F. Thomas33, William D. Travis14, Ming-Sound Tsao34, Andrew T. Turrisi35, Johan Vansteenkiste21, Hirokazu Watanabe, Yi-Long Wu, Paul Baas36, Jeremy J. Erasmus22, Seiki Hasegawa24, Kouki Inai37, Kemp H. Kernstine38, Hedy L. Kindler39, Lee M. Krug14, Kristiaan Nackaerts21, Harvey I. Pass40, David C. Rice22, Conrad Falkson5, Pier Luigi Filosso29, Giuseppe Giaccone41, Kazuya Kondo42, Marco Lucchi43, Meinoshin Okumura44, Eugene H. Blackstone27, F. Abad Cavaco, E. Ansótegui Barrera, J. Abal Arca, I. Parente Lamelas, A. Arnau Obrer45, R. Guijarro Jorge45, D. Ball6, G.K. Bascom46, A. I. Blanco Orozco, M. A. González Castro, M.G. Blum, D. Chimondeguy, V. Cvijanovic47, S. Defranchi48, B. de Olaiz Navarro, I. Escobar Campuzano2, I. Macía Vidueira2, E. Fernández Araujo49, F. Andreo García49, Kwun M. Fong, G. Francisco Corral, S. Cerezo González, J. Freixinet Gilart, L. García Arangüena, S. García Barajas50, P. Girard, Tuncay Göksel, M. T. González Budiño51, G. González Casaurrán50, J. A. Gullón Blanco, J. Hernández Hernández, H. Hernández Rodríguez, J. Herrero Collantes, M. Iglesias Heras, J. M. Izquierdo Elena, Erik Jakobsen, S. Kostas52, P. León Atance, A. Núñez Ares, M. Liao, M. Losanovscky, G. Lyons, R. Magaroles53, L. De Esteban Júlvez53, M. Mariñán Gorospe, Brian C. McCaughan15, Catherine J. Kennedy15, R. Melchor Íñiguez54, L. Miravet Sorribes, S. Naranjo Gozalo, C. Álvarez de Arriba, M. Núñez Delgado, J. Padilla Alarcón, J. C. Peñalver Cuesta, Jongsun Park16, H. Pass40, M. J. Pavón Fernández, Mara Rosenberg, Enrico Ruffini29, V. Rusch14, J. Sánchez de Cos Escuín, A. Saura Vinuesa, M. Serra Mitjans, Trond Eirik Strand, Dragan Subotic, S.G. Swisher22, Ricardo Mingarini Terra8, Charles R. Thomas33, Kurt G. Tournoy55, P. Van Schil23, M. Velasquez, Y.L. Wu, K. Yokoi 
Imperial College London1, University of Barcelona2, Keio University3, University of Duisburg-Essen4, Queen's University5, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre6, University of Michigan7, University of São Paulo8, Yale University9, Northern General Hospital10, University of Caen Lower Normandy11, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center12, University of Oxford13, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center14, University of Sydney15, Sungkyunkwan University16, Seoul National University17, Kyorin University18, University of Copenhagen19, Nippon Medical School20, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven21, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center22, University of Antwerp23, Hyogo College of Medicine24, University of Western Australia25, Glenfield Hospital26, Cleveland Clinic27, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai28, University of Turin29, Université libre de Bruxelles30, Juntendo University31, National Cancer Research Institute32, Mayo Clinic33, University of Toronto34, Sinai Grace Hospital35, Netherlands Cancer Institute36, Hiroshima University37, City of Hope National Medical Center38, University of Chicago39, New York University40, Georgetown University41, University of Tokushima42, University of Pisa43, Osaka University44, University of Valencia45, Good Samaritan Hospital46, Military Medical Academy47, Fundación Favaloro48, Autonomous University of Barcelona49, Complutense University of Madrid50, University of Oviedo51, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens52, Rovira i Virgili University53, Autonomous University of Madrid54, Ghent University55
TL;DR: The methods used to evaluate the resultant Stage groupings and the proposals put forward for the 8th edition of the TNM Classification for lung cancer due to be published late 2016 are described.

2,826 citations


Showing all 33744 results

Tadamitsu Kishimoto1811067130860
Takashi Taniguchi1522141110658
Yasushi Fukazawa13588264424
Itsuo Nakano135153997905
T. Ohsugi13366466010
Jerry W. Shay13363974774
Tsunefumi Mizuno13047860014
Tohru Takeshita128103678625
Alex K.-Y. Jen12892161811
Andreas Kugel12891075529
Alain Benoit12446586284
Hiromitsu Takahashi12449955976
Yoshimi Takai12268061478
Toshio Hirano12040155721
Joakim Nystrand11765850146
Network Information
Related Institutions (5)
Kyoto University
217.2K papers, 6.5M citations

98% related

Nagoya University
128.2K papers, 3.2M citations

98% related

Hokkaido University
115.4K papers, 2.6M citations

98% related

University of Tokyo
337.5K papers, 10.1M citations

97% related

Osaka University
185.6K papers, 5.1M citations

97% related

No. of papers from the Institution in previous years