About: Hohai University is a education organization based out in Nanjing, China. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Water resources & Electric power system. The organization has 28358 authors who have published 27129 publications receiving 264797 citations. The organization is also known as: HHU.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a methodology for modeling and analyzing the load demand in a distribution system due to electric vehicle (EV) battery charging in the U.K. distribution system, which takes into account expected future changes to the electricity tariffs in the electricity market place and appropriate regulation of EVs battery charging loads.
Abstract: This paper presents a methodology for modeling and analyzing the load demand in a distribution system due to electric vehicle (EV) battery charging. Following a brief introduction to the common types of EV batteries and their charging characteristics, an analytical solution for predicting the EV charging load is developed. The method is stochastically formulated so as to account for the stochastic nature of the start time of individual battery charging and the initial battery state-of-charge. A comparative study is carried out by simulating four EV charging scenarios, i.e., uncontrolled domestic charging, uncontrolled off-peak domestic charging, “smart” domestic charging and uncontrolled public charging-commuters capable of recharging at the workplace. The proposed four EVs charging scenarios take into account the expected future changes to the electricity tariffs in the electricity market place and appropriate regulation of EVs battery charging loads. A typical U.K. distribution system is adopted as an example. The time-series data of EV charging loads is taken from two commercially available EV batteries: lead-acid and lithium-ion. Results show that a 10% market penetration of EVs in the studied system would result in an increase in daily peak demand by up to 17.9%, while a 20% level of EV penetration would lead to a 35.8% increase in peak load, for the scenario of uncontrolled domestic charging-the “worst-case” scenario.
Université Paris-Saclay1, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation2, Goddard Space Flight Center3, Stanford University4, Yale University5, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration6, VU University Amsterdam7, Netherlands Institute for Space Research8, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology9, Chiba University10, Linköping University11, University of California, Irvine12, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research13, New York University14, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli15, École Polytechnique16, Stockholm University17, Skidmore College18, University of Victoria19, National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology20, Babeș-Bolyai University21, California Institute of Technology22, Met Office23, University of Reading24, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis25, National Institute for Environmental Studies26, City University of New York27, University of Bern28, Max Planck Society29, Purdue University30, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts31, Lund University32, University of Bristol33, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory34, University of Leicester35, Université du Québec à Montréal36, Peking University37, Massachusetts Institute of Technology38, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory39, Southern Cross University40, Auburn University41, Joint Global Change Research Institute42, Food and Agriculture Organization43, Finnish Meteorological Institute44, Technical University of Crete45, Imperial College London46, University of Rochester47, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute48, Scripps Institution of Oceanography49, University of Toronto50, University of Maryland, College Park51, Hohai University52
TL;DR: The second version of the living review paper dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down studies (atmospheric observations within an atmospheric inverse-modeling framework) and bottom-up estimates (including process-based models for estimating land surface emissions and atmospheric chemistry, inventories of anthropogenic emissions, and data-driven extrapolations) as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. Atmospheric emissions and concentrations of CH4 continue to increase, making CH4 the second most important human-influenced greenhouse gas in terms of climate forcing, after carbon dioxide (CO2). The relative importance of CH4 compared to CO2 depends on its shorter atmospheric lifetime, stronger warming potential, and variations in atmospheric growth rate over the past decade, the causes of which are still debated. Two major challenges in reducing uncertainties in the atmospheric growth rate arise from the variety of geographically overlapping CH4 sources and from the destruction of CH4 by short-lived hydroxyl radicals (OH). To address these challenges, we have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. Following Saunois et al. (2016), we present here the second version of the living review paper dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down studies (atmospheric observations within an atmospheric inverse-modelling framework) and bottom-up estimates (including process-based models for estimating land surface emissions and atmospheric chemistry, inventories of anthropogenic emissions, and data-driven extrapolations). For the 2008–2017 decade, global methane emissions are estimated by atmospheric inversions (a top-down approach) to be 576 Tg CH4 yr−1 (range 550–594, corresponding to the minimum and maximum estimates of the model ensemble). Of this total, 359 Tg CH4 yr−1 or ∼ 60 % is attributed to anthropogenic sources, that is emissions caused by direct human activity (i.e. anthropogenic emissions; range 336–376 Tg CH4 yr−1 or 50 %–65 %). The mean annual total emission for the new decade (2008–2017) is 29 Tg CH4 yr−1 larger than our estimate for the previous decade (2000–2009), and 24 Tg CH4 yr−1 larger than the one reported in the previous budget for 2003–2012 (Saunois et al., 2016). Since 2012, global CH4 emissions have been tracking the warmest scenarios assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Bottom-up methods suggest almost 30 % larger global emissions (737 Tg CH4 yr−1, range 594–881) than top-down inversion methods. Indeed, bottom-up estimates for natural sources such as natural wetlands, other inland water systems, and geological sources are higher than top-down estimates. The atmospheric constraints on the top-down budget suggest that at least some of these bottom-up emissions are overestimated. The latitudinal distribution of atmospheric observation-based emissions indicates a predominance of tropical emissions (∼ 65 % of the global budget, < 30∘ N) compared to mid-latitudes (∼ 30 %, 30–60∘ N) and high northern latitudes (∼ 4 %, 60–90∘ N). The most important source of uncertainty in the methane budget is attributable to natural emissions, especially those from wetlands and other inland waters. Some of our global source estimates are smaller than those in previously published budgets (Saunois et al., 2016; Kirschke et al., 2013). In particular wetland emissions are about 35 Tg CH4 yr−1 lower due to improved partition wetlands and other inland waters. Emissions from geological sources and wild animals are also found to be smaller by 7 Tg CH4 yr−1 by 8 Tg CH4 yr−1, respectively. However, the overall discrepancy between bottom-up and top-down estimates has been reduced by only 5 % compared to Saunois et al. (2016), due to a higher estimate of emissions from inland waters, highlighting the need for more detailed research on emissions factors. Priorities for improving the methane budget include (i) a global, high-resolution map of water-saturated soils and inundated areas emitting methane based on a robust classification of different types of emitting habitats; (ii) further development of process-based models for inland-water emissions; (iii) intensification of methane observations at local scales (e.g., FLUXNET-CH4 measurements) and urban-scale monitoring to constrain bottom-up land surface models, and at regional scales (surface networks and satellites) to constrain atmospheric inversions; (iv) improvements of transport models and the representation of photochemical sinks in top-down inversions; and (v) development of a 3D variational inversion system using isotopic and/or co-emitted species such as ethane to improve source partitioning.
TL;DR: In this paper, the positive solution of nonlinear fractional difier- ential equation with semi-positive nonlinearity was investigated and the existence results of positive solution were obtained by using Krasnosel'skii flxed point theorem.
Abstract: We investigate the positive solution of nonlinear fractional difier- ential equation with semi-positive nonlinearity ‰ D fi 0+u(t) + f(t;u(t)) = 0; 0 < t < 1; u(0) = u 0 (1) = u 00 (0) = 0 where 2 < fi • 3 is a real number, D fi+ is the Caputo's difierentiation, and f : (0;1) £ (0;1) ! (i1;1) By use of Krasnosel'skii flxed point theorem, the existence results of positive solution are obtained
TL;DR: This review article aims to present some short summaries written by distinguished researchers in the field of fractional calculus that will guide young researchers and help newcomers to see some of the main real-world applications and gain an understanding of this powerful mathematical tool.
Abstract: Fractional calculus is at this stage an arena where many models are still to be introduced, discussed and applied to real world applications in many branches of science and engineering where nonlocality plays a crucial role. Although researchers have already reported many excellent results in several seminal monographs and review articles, there are still a large number of non-local phenomena unexplored and waiting to be discovered. Therefore, year by year, we can discover new aspects of the fractional modeling and applications. This review article aims to present some short summaries written by distinguished researchers in the field of fractional calculus. We believe this incomplete, but important, information will guide young researchers and help newcomers to see some of the main real-world applications and gain an understanding of this powerful mathematical tool. We expect this collection will also benefit our community.
TL;DR: Results point to the need to reduce both N and P inputs for long-term eutrophication and cyanobacterial bloom control in this hyper-eutrophic system.
Abstract: Harmful cyanobacterial blooms, reflecting advanced eutrophication, are spreading globally and threaten the sustainability of freshwater ecosystems. Increasingly, non-nitrogen (N(2))-fixing cyanobacteria (e.g., Microcystis) dominate such blooms, indicating that both excessive nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads may be responsible for their proliferation. Traditionally, watershed nutrient management efforts to control these blooms have focused on reducing P inputs. However, N loading has increased dramatically in many watersheds, promoting blooms of non-N(2) fixers, and altering lake nutrient budgets and cycling characteristics. We examined this proliferating water quality problem in Lake Taihu, China's 3rd largest freshwater lake. This shallow, hyper-eutrophic lake has changed from bloom-free to bloom-plagued conditions over the past 3 decades. Toxic Microcystis spp. blooms threaten the use of the lake for drinking water, fisheries and recreational purposes. Nutrient addition bioassays indicated that the lake shifts from P limitation in winter-spring to N limitation in cyanobacteria-dominated summer and fall months. Combined N and P additions led to maximum stimulation of growth. Despite summer N limitation and P availability, non-N(2) fixing blooms prevailed. Nitrogen cycling studies, combined with N input estimates, indicate that Microcystis thrives on both newly supplied and previously-loaded N sources to maintain its dominance. Denitrification did not relieve the lake of excessive N inputs. Results point to the need to reduce both N and P inputs for long-term eutrophication and cyanobacterial bloom control in this hyper-eutrophic system.
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|Hans W. Paerl||104||446||45914|
|Surendra P. Shah||99||710||32832|
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