Facility•Kolkata, West Bengal, India•
About: Indian Institute of Chemical Biology is a facility organization based out in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Leishmania donovani & Vibrio cholerae. The organization has 2346 authors who have published 4180 publications receiving 95780 citations. The organization is also known as: IICB.
Topics: Leishmania donovani, Vibrio cholerae, Population, Visceral leishmaniasis, Circular dichroism
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, a compilation of the 13C NMR data of a selected variety of naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoids, arranged skeletonwise, is provided.
Abstract: A compilation of the13C NMR data of a selected variety of naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoids, arranged skeletonwise, is provided. A bri
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
TL;DR: The fate of H2 biotechnology is presumed to be dictated by the stock of fossil fuel and state of pollution in future.
Abstract: Production of hydrogen by anaerobes, facultative anaerobes, aerobes, methylotrophs, and photosynthetic bacteria is possible. Anaerobic Clostridia are potential producers and immobilized C. butyricum produces 2 mol H2/mol glucose at 50% efficiency. Spontaneous production of H2 from formate and glucose by immobilized Escherichia coli showed 100% and 60% efficiencies, respectively. Enterobactericiae produces H2 at similar efficiency from different monosaccharides during growth. Among methylotrophs, methanogenes, rumen bacteria, and thermophilic archae, Ruminococcus albus, is promising (2.37 mol/mol glucose). Immobilized aerobic Bacillus licheniformis optimally produces 0.7 mol H2/mol glucose. Photosynthetic Rhodospirillum rubrum produces 4, 7, and 6 mol of H2 from acetate, succinate, and malate, respectively. Excellent productivity (6.2 mol H2/mol glucose) by co-cultures of Cellulomonas with a hydrogenase uptake (Hup) mutant of R. capsulata on cellulose was found. Cyanobacteria, viz., Anabaena, Synechococcus, and Oscillatoria sp., have been studied for photoproduction of H2. Immobilized A. cylindrica produces H2 (20 ml/g dry wt/h) continually for 1 year. Increased H2 productivity was found for Hup mutant of A. variabilis. Synechococcus sp. has a high potential for H2 production in fermentors and outdoor cultures. Simultaneous productions of oxychemicals and H2 by Klebseilla sp. and by enzymatic methods were also attempted. The fate of H2 biotechnology is presumed to be dictated by the stock of fossil fuel and state of pollution in future.
TL;DR: The ethnicity or population-specific variations in human microbiome composition, as reviewed in this report, question the universality of the microbiome-based therapeutic strategies and recommend for geographically tailored community-scale approaches to microbiome engineering.
Abstract: One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats-Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution-a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life. In general, gut microbiome of the hunter-gatherer populations is highly abundant with Prevotella, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Clostridiales, Ruminobacter etc., while those of the urban communities are often enriched in Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Firmicutes. The oral and skin microbiome are the next most diverse among different populations, while respiratory tract and UGT microbiome show lesser variations. Higher microbiome diversity is observed for oral-cavity in hunter-gatherer group with higher prevalence of Haemophilus than agricultural group. In case of skin microbiome, rural and urban Chinese populations show variation in abundance of Trabulsiella and Propionibacterium. On the basis of published data, we have characterized the core microbiota-the set of genera commonly found in all populations, irrespective of their geographic locations, ethnicity or mode of subsistence. We have also identified the major factors responsible for geography-based alterations in microbiota; though it is not yet clear which factor plays a dominant role in shaping the microbiome-nature or nurture, host genetics or his environment. Some of the geographical/racial variations in microbiome structure have been attributed to differences in host genetics and innate/adaptive immunity, while in many other cases, cultural/behavioral features like diet, hygiene, parasitic load, environmental exposure etc. overshadow genetics. The ethnicity or population-specific variations in human microbiome composition, as reviewed in this report, question the universality of the microbiome-based therapeutic strategies and recommend for geographically tailored community-scale approaches to microbiome engineering.
TL;DR: An ultra-fast computational pipeline BPGA (Bacterial Pan Genome Analysis tool) with seven functional modules, which introduces a number of novel features for downstream analyses like core/pan/MLST (Multi Locus Sequence Typing) phylogeny, exclusive presence/absence of genes in specific strains, subset analysis, atypical G + C content analysis and KEGG & COG mapping of core, accessory and unique genes.
Abstract: Recent advances in ultra-high-throughput sequencing technology and metagenomics have led to a paradigm shift in microbial genomics from few genome comparisons to large-scale pan-genome studies at different scales of phylogenetic resolution. Pan-genome studies provide a framework for estimating the genomic diversity of the dataset, determining core (conserved), accessory (dispensable) and unique (strain-specific) gene pool of a species, tracing horizontal gene-flux across strains and providing insight into species evolution. The existing pan genome software tools suffer from various limitations like limited datasets, difficult installation/requirements, inadequate functional features etc. Here we present an ultra-fast computational pipeline BPGA (Bacterial Pan Genome Analysis tool) with seven functional modules. In addition to the routine pan genome analyses, BPGA introduces a number of novel features for downstream analyses like core/pan/MLST (Multi Locus Sequence Typing) phylogeny, exclusive presence/absence of genes in specific strains, subset analysis, atypical G + C content analysis and KEGG & COG mapping of core, accessory and unique genes. Other notable features include minimum running prerequisites, freedom to select the gene clustering method, ultra-fast execution, user friendly command line interface and high-quality graphics outputs. The performance of BPGA has been evaluated using a dataset of complete genome sequences of 28 Streptococcus pyogenes strains.
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|Tapas K. Hazra||57||107||9034|
|Partha P. Majumder||52||285||11849|
|Bhudev C. Das||48||229||7144|
|Seyed E. Hasnain||46||256||7480|
|Gopinatha Suresh Kumar||45||241||6841|
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