About: Indian Institute of Chemical Technology is a facility organization based out in Hyderabad, India. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Catalysis & Total synthesis. The organization has 8435 authors who have published 13978 publications receiving 305816 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
TL;DR: A review of the development of high performance polyurethane (PU) and its subclass coatings can be found in this paper, where a wide variety of fillers, whiskers and fibers as well as clay and wollastonites with structural modification are described for use in nanocomposite PU coatings.
Abstract: This review addresses trends in the development of high performance polyurethane (PU) and its subclass coatings. Changes in the understanding the technical requirements and properties, along with novel approaches in creating high performance PU films are discussed. Some discussion of developments leading to the current status is provided, along with opportunities for the development of architectural, domestic and automotive coatings from carbamate chemistry. The review also focuses on the chemistry of PU, the importance of side products such as biuret, allophanate formation, as well as different low VOC PU coatings such as moisture-cured PU-urea, polyurea, PU-imide, UV cure and waterborne PU coatings. A brief description of functionalized dendritic/hyperbranched polymers, different monomers and synthetic approaches, and their use in the PU coating sector is addressed. In the context of nanostructuring, sol–gel chemistry to formulate ceramer coatings and use of functionalized nanomaterials in PU coatings is described. This portion also includes silica grafting and functionalization of nanosilica particles, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane and the use of bridged polysilsesquioxanes in PU coatings. A wide variety of fillers, whiskers and fibers as well as clay and wollastonites with structural modification is described for use in nanocomposite PU coatings, with special emphasis on the latest development in PU-layered silicate nanocomposites.The use of different reactive-type organophosphorus compounds, aziridinyl curing agents in aqueous PU dispersions, phosphazenes, organo-boranes such as different carboranes for use in the formulation of flame retardant coatings is described. Since surface properties determine the resistivity of coatings towards corrosive chemicals, moisture and dirt repellency, a portion of the review will also be devoted towards modification of surface properties using fluoropolymer, and the synthesis and a brief description of the available fluorinated diols is given.
TL;DR: Electron microscopy analysis of thin sections of the fungal cells indicated that the silver particles were formed below the cell wall surface, possibly due to reduction of the metal ions by enzymes present in the cell walls membrane.
Abstract: A novel biological method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Verticillium is reported. Exposure of the fungal biomass to aqueous Ag+ ions resulted in the intracellular reduction of the metal ions and formation of silver nanoparticles of dimensions 25 ± 12 nm. Electron microscopy analysis of thin sections of the fungal cells indicated that the silver particles were formed below the cell wall surface, possibly due to reduction of the metal ions by enzymes present in the cell wall membrane. The metal ions were not toxic to the fungal cells and the cells continued to multiply after biosynthesis of the silver nanoparticles.
TL;DR: In this paper, the performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) has been evaluated in the context of fuel cell systems, considering their structure-property relationship.
Abstract: Fuel cells represent a clean alternative to current technologies for utilizing hydrocarbon fuel resources Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have acquired due importance as they are best suited for applications where a quick start up is required such as in automobiles The prime requirements of fuel cell membranes are high proton conductivity, low methanol/water permeability, good mechanical and thermal stability and moderate price Membranes and the operating parameters together have a profound influence on performance of PEMFCs Perfluorinated ionomers, hydrocarbon and aromatic polymers and acid–base complexes have been described in the review The performance of this special class of polymers, considering their structure–property relationship and the current research involving their applicability in fuel cell systems are presented Modifications made to Nafion ® membranes, the conceptual design of substitutes for perfluorosulfonic acid materials and modifications made to aromatic membranes to render them suitable for this application have been summarized Promising avenues for further research in this area have been identified © 2005 Published by Elsevier BV
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne1, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency2, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory3, Centre national de la recherche scientifique4, Wageningen University and Research Centre5, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology6, Max Planck Society7, Goddard Institute for Space Studies8, University of Edinburgh9, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute10, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory11, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis12, Met Office13, University of Oslo14, University of Virginia15, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy16, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology17, University of Cambridge18
TL;DR: This paper used 23 atmospheric chemistry transport models to calculate current and future (2030) deposition of reactive nitrogen (NOy, NHx) and sulfate (SOx) to land and ocean surfaces.
Abstract: We use 23 atmospheric chemistry transport models to calculate current and future (2030) deposition of reactive nitrogen (NOy, NHx) and sulfate (SOx) to land and ocean surfaces. The models are driven by three emission scenarios: (1) current air quality legislation (CLE); (2) an optimistic case of the maximum emissions reductions currently technologically feasible (MFR); and (3) the contrasting pessimistic IPCC SRES A2 scenario. An extensive evaluation of the present-day deposition using nearly all information on wet deposition available worldwide shows a good agreement with observations in Europe and North America, where 60–70% of the model-calculated wet deposition rates agree to within ±50% with quality-controlled measurements. Models systematically overestimate NHx deposition in South Asia, and underestimate NOy deposition in East Asia. We show that there are substantial differences among models for the removal mechanisms of NOy, NHx, and SOx, leading to ±1 σ variance in total deposition fluxes of about 30% in the anthropogenic emissions regions, and up to a factor of 2 outside. In all cases the mean model constructed from the ensemble calculations is among the best when comparing to measurements. Currently, 36–51% of all NOy, NHx, and SOx is deposited over the ocean, and 50–80% of the fraction of deposition on land falls on natural (nonagricultural) vegetation. Currently, 11% of the world's natural vegetation receives nitrogen deposition in excess of the “critical load” threshold of 1000 mg(N) m−2 yr−1. The regions most affected are the United States (20% of vegetation), western Europe (30%), eastern Europe (80%), South Asia (60%), East Asia (40%), southeast Asia (30%), and Japan (50%). Future deposition fluxes are mainly driven by changes in emissions, and less importantly by changes in atmospheric chemistry and climate. The global fraction of vegetation exposed to nitrogen loads in excess of 1000 mg(N) m−2 yr−1 increases globally to 17% for CLE and 25% for A2. In MFR, the reductions in NOy are offset by further increases for NHx deposition. The regions most affected by exceedingly high nitrogen loads for CLE and A2 are Europe and Asia, but also parts of Africa.
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|Israel E. Wachs||103||427||32029|
|Tejraj M. Aminabhavi||89||642||32265|
|S. Venkata Mohan||74||427||19185|
|Suresh K. Bhargava||67||704||17526|
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