Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar
About: Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar is a(n) education organization based out in Bhubaneswar, India. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Large Hadron Collider & Higgs boson. The organization has 1185 authors who have published 3132 publication(s) receiving 48832 citation(s).
Topics: Large Hadron Collider, Higgs boson, Graphene, Particle swarm optimization, Ultimate tensile strength
Daniel J. Klionsky1, Kotb Abdelmohsen2, Akihisa Abe3, Joynal Abedin4 +2519 more•Institutions (695)
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
TL;DR: Some novel pre-hydrolysed coagulants such as Polyaluminium chloride (PACl), Polyal aluminium ferric chloride (PAFCl), Polyferrous sulphate (PFS) and Polyferic chloride (PFCl) have been found to be more effective and suggested for decolourisation of the textile wastewater.
Abstract: Textile industry is one of the most chemically intensive industries on the earth and the major polluter of potable water. It generates huge quantities of complex chemical substances as a part of unused materials including dyes in the form of wastewater during various stages of textile processing. The direct discharge of this wastewater into environment affects its ecological status by causing various undesirable changes. As environmental protection becomes a global concern, industries are finding novel solutions for developing technologies that can diminish the environmental damage. However, colour removal from textile wastewater by means of cheaper and environmental friendly technologies is still a major challenge. In this manuscript, several options of decolourisation of textile wastewater by chemical means have been reviewed. Based on the present review, some novel pre-hydrolysed coagulants such as Polyaluminium chloride (PACl), Polyaluminium ferric chloride (PAFCl), Polyferrous sulphate (PFS) and Polyferric chloride (PFCl) have been found to be more effective and suggested for decolourisation of the textile wastewater. Moreover, use of natural coagulants for textile wastewater treatment has also been emphasised and encouraged as the viable alternative because of their eco-friendly nature.
01 Jan 2011-Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
TL;DR: The benefits of ultrasonication of sludge, the effect of sonication parameters, impact ofSludge characteristics on sludge disintegration, and thereby the increase in biogas production in anaerobic digester are summarized.
Abstract: Ultrasonication is an emerging and very effective mechanical pretreatment method to enhance the biodegradability of the sludge, and it would be very useful to all wastewater treatment plants in treating and disposing sewage sludge. Ultrasonication enhances the sludge digestibility by disrupting the physical, chemical and biological properties of the sludge. The degree of disintegration depends on the sonication parameters and also on sludge characteristics, therefore the evaluation of the optimum parameters varies with the type of sonicater and sludge to be treated. The full-scale installations of ultrasonication have demonstrated that there is 50% increase in the biogas generation, and in addition evaluation of energy balance showed that the average ratio of the net energy gain to electric consumed by the ultrasound device is 2.5. This review article summarizes the benefits of ultrasonication of sludge, the effect of sonication parameters, impact of sludge characteristics on sludge disintegration, and thereby the increase in biogas production in anaerobic digester. Due to uncertainty in the unit representation by many researchers and nonavailability of the data, comparison of these results is complicated. Comparison of ultrasonication with other pretreatment options is necessary to evaluate the best economical and environmental pretreatment technology for sludge treatment and disposal. The optimum parameters for the ultrasonication vary with sludge characteristics.
TL;DR: An up-to-date review of all major nature inspired metaheuristic algorithms employed till date for partitional clustering and key issues involved during formulation of various metaheuristics as a clustering problem and major application areas are discussed.
Abstract: The partitional clustering concept started with K-means algorithm which was published in 1957. Since then many classical partitional clustering algorithms have been reported based on gradient descent approach. The 1990 kick started a new era in cluster analysis with the application of nature inspired metaheuristics. After initial formulation nearly two decades have passed and researchers have developed numerous new algorithms in this field. This paper embodies an up-to-date review of all major nature inspired metaheuristic algorithms employed till date for partitional clustering. Further, key issues involved during formulation of various metaheuristics as a clustering problem and major application areas are discussed.
Adrian John Bevan1, B. Golob2, Th. Mannel3, S. Prell4 +2061 more•Institutions (171)
19 Nov 2014-European Physical Journal C
TL;DR: The physics of the SLAC and KEK B Factories are described in this paper, with a brief description of the detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues.
Abstract: This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C.
Showing all 1185 results
|Gabor Istvan Veres||135||1349||96104|
|Deepak Kumar Sahoo||62||438||17308|
|Krishna R. Reddy||58||400||11076|
|Saroj K. Nayak||49||149||8319|
|Dipak Kumar Sahoo||47||234||7293|
|Mar Barrio Luna||43||179||5248|
|Chandra Sekhar Rout||41||183||7736|
|Subhransu Ranjan Samantaray||39||167||4880|
Related Institutions (5)
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
21.4K papers, 419.9K citations
Indian Institutes of Technology
40.1K papers, 652.9K citations
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
26.9K papers, 503.8K citations
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
28.6K papers, 576.8K citations
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
38.6K papers, 714.5K citations