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Institution

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

EducationMumbai, India
About: Indian Institute of Technology Bombay is a education organization based out in Mumbai, India. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Thin film. The organization has 16756 authors who have published 33588 publications receiving 570559 citations.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provided an assessment of black-carbon climate forcing that is comprehensive in its inclusion of all known and relevant processes and that is quantitative in providing best estimates and uncertainties of the main forcing terms: direct solar absorption; influence on liquid, mixed phase, and ice clouds; and deposition on snow and ice.
Abstract: Black carbon aerosol plays a unique and important role in Earth's climate system. Black carbon is a type of carbonaceous material with a unique combination of physical properties. This assessment provides an evaluation of black-carbon climate forcing that is comprehensive in its inclusion of all known and relevant processes and that is quantitative in providing best estimates and uncertainties of the main forcing terms: direct solar absorption; influence on liquid, mixed phase, and ice clouds; and deposition on snow and ice. These effects are calculated with climate models, but when possible, they are evaluated with both microphysical measurements and field observations. Predominant sources are combustion related, namely, fossil fuels for transportation, solid fuels for industrial and residential uses, and open burning of biomass. Total global emissions of black carbon using bottom-up inventory methods are 7500 Gg yr−1 in the year 2000 with an uncertainty range of 2000 to 29000. However, global atmospheric absorption attributable to black carbon is too low in many models and should be increased by a factor of almost 3. After this scaling, the best estimate for the industrial-era (1750 to 2005) direct radiative forcing of atmospheric black carbon is +0.71 W m−2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of (+0.08, +1.27) W m−2. Total direct forcing by all black carbon sources, without subtracting the preindustrial background, is estimated as +0.88 (+0.17, +1.48) W m−2. Direct radiative forcing alone does not capture important rapid adjustment mechanisms. A framework is described and used for quantifying climate forcings, including rapid adjustments. The best estimate of industrial-era climate forcing of black carbon through all forcing mechanisms, including clouds and cryosphere forcing, is +1.1 W m−2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of +0.17 to +2.1 W m−2. Thus, there is a very high probability that black carbon emissions, independent of co-emitted species, have a positive forcing and warm the climate. We estimate that black carbon, with a total climate forcing of +1.1 W m−2, is the second most important human emission in terms of its climate forcing in the present-day atmosphere; only carbon dioxide is estimated to have a greater forcing. Sources that emit black carbon also emit other short-lived species that may either cool or warm climate. Climate forcings from co-emitted species are estimated and used in the framework described herein. When the principal effects of short-lived co-emissions, including cooling agents such as sulfur dioxide, are included in net forcing, energy-related sources (fossil fuel and biofuel) have an industrial-era climate forcing of +0.22 (−0.50 to +1.08) W m−2 during the first year after emission. For a few of these sources, such as diesel engines and possibly residential biofuels, warming is strong enough that eliminating all short-lived emissions from these sources would reduce net climate forcing (i.e., produce cooling). When open burning emissions, which emit high levels of organic matter, are included in the total, the best estimate of net industrial-era climate forcing by all short-lived species from black-carbon-rich sources becomes slightly negative (−0.06 W m−2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of −1.45 to +1.29 W m−2). The uncertainties in net climate forcing from black-carbon-rich sources are substantial, largely due to lack of knowledge about cloud interactions with both black carbon and co-emitted organic carbon. In prioritizing potential black-carbon mitigation actions, non-science factors, such as technical feasibility, costs, policy design, and implementation feasibility play important roles. The major sources of black carbon are presently in different stages with regard to the feasibility for near-term mitigation. This assessment, by evaluating the large number and complexity of the associated physical and radiative processes in black-carbon climate forcing, sets a baseline from which to improve future climate forcing estimates.

4,591 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the emerging research on additive manufacturing of metallic materials is provided in this article, which provides a comprehensive overview of the physical processes and the underlying science of metallurgical structure and properties of the deposited parts.

4,192 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that the regularity properties of the Lyapunov function and those of the settling-time function are related and converse Lyap Unov results can only assure the existence of continuous Lyap unov functions.
Abstract: Finite-time stability is defined for equilibria of continuous but non-Lipschitzian autonomous systems. Continuity, Lipschitz continuity, and Holder continuity of the settling-time function are studied and illustrated with several examples. Lyapunov and converse Lyapunov results involving scalar differential inequalities are given for finite-time stability. It is shown that the regularity properties of the Lyapunov function and those of the settling-time function are related. Consequently, converse Lyapunov results can only assure the existence of continuous Lyapunov functions. Finally, the sensitivity of finite-time-stable systems to perturbations is investigated.

3,894 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Patrick S. Schnable1, Doreen Ware2, Robert S. Fulton3, Joshua C. Stein2  +156 moreInstitutions (18)
20 Nov 2009-Science
TL;DR: The sequence of the maize genome reveals it to be the most complex genome known to date and the correlation of methylation-poor regions with Mu transposon insertions and recombination and how uneven gene losses between duplicated regions were involved in returning an ancient allotetraploid to a genetically diploid state is reported.
Abstract: We report an improved draft nucleotide sequence of the 2.3-gigabase genome of maize, an important crop plant and model for biological research. Over 32,000 genes were predicted, of which 99.8% were placed on reference chromosomes. Nearly 85% of the genome is composed of hundreds of families of transposable elements, dispersed nonuniformly across the genome. These were responsible for the capture and amplification of numerous gene fragments and affect the composition, sizes, and positions of centromeres. We also report on the correlation of methylation-poor regions with Mu transposon insertions and recombination, and copy number variants with insertions and/or deletions, as well as how uneven gene losses between duplicated regions were involved in returning an ancient allotetraploid to a genetically diploid state. These analyses inform and set the stage for further investigations to improve our understanding of the domestication and agricultural improvements of maize.

3,761 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Joseph Adams1, Madan M. Aggarwal2, Zubayer Ahammed3, J. Amonett4  +363 moreInstitutions (46)
TL;DR: In this paper, the most important experimental results from the first three years of nucleus-nucleus collision studies at RHIC were reviewed, with emphasis on results of the STAR experiment.

2,750 citations


Authors

Showing all 17055 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Jovan Milosevic1521433106802
C. N. R. Rao133164686718
Robert R. Edelman11960549475
Claude Andre Pruneau11461045500
Sanjeev Kumar113132554386
Basanta Kumar Nandi11257243331
Shaji Kumar111126553237
Josep M. Guerrero110119760890
R. Varma10949741970
Vijay P. Singh106169955831
Vinayak P. Dravid10381743612
Swagata Mukherjee101104846234
Anil Kumar99212464825
Dhiman Chakraborty9652944459
Michael D. Ward9582336892
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
2023175
2022433
20213,013
20203,093
20192,760
20182,549