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Institution

Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur

EducationKharagpur, India
About: Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur is a education organization based out in Kharagpur, India. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Natural rubber & Dielectric. The organization has 16887 authors who have published 38658 publications receiving 714526 citations.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
Daniel J. Klionsky1, Kotb Abdelmohsen2, Akihisa Abe3, Joynal Abedin4  +2519 moreInstitutions (695)
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.

5,187 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review presents an overview of the electrospinning technique with its promising advantages and potential applications, and focuses on varied applications of electrospun fibers in different fields.

3,932 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents a meta-analysis of four-Wave Mixing and its applications in nanofiltration, which shows clear trends in high-performance liquid chromatography and also investigates the role of nano-magnifying lens technology in this process.
Abstract: 12.2.2. Four-Wave Mixing (FWM) 4849 12.2.3. Dye Aggregation 4850 12.2.4. Optoelectronic Nanodevices 4850 12.3. Sensor 4851 12.3.1. Chemical Sensor 4851 12.3.2. Biological Sensor 4851 12.4. Catalysis 4852 13. Conclusion and Perspectives 4852 14. Abbreviations 4853 15. Acknowledgements 4854 16. References 4854 * Corresponding author E-mail: tpal@chem.iitkgp.ernet.in. † Raidighi College. § Indian Institute of Technology. 4797 Chem. Rev. 2007, 107, 4797−4862

2,414 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors define equality of two soft sets, subset and super set of a soft set, complement of asoft set, null soft set and absolute soft set with examples and De Morgan's laws and a number of results are verified in soft set theory.
Abstract: In this paper, the authors study the theory of soft sets initiated by Molodtsov. The authors define equality of two soft sets, subset and super set of a soft set, complement of a soft set, null soft set, and absolute soft set with examples. Soft binary operations like AND, OR and also the operations of union, intersection are defined. De Morgan's laws and a number of results are verified in soft set theory.

2,114 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This correspondence discusses an extension of the well-known phase correlation technique to cover translation, rotation, and scaling, which shows excellent robustness against random noise.
Abstract: This correspondence discusses an extension of the well-known phase correlation technique to cover translation, rotation, and scaling. Fourier scaling properties and Fourier rotational properties are used to find scale and rotational movement. The phase correlation technique determines the translational movement. This method shows excellent robustness against random noise.

1,939 citations


Authors

Showing all 17290 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Rajdeep Mohan Chatterjee11099051407
Vijay P. Singh106169955831
Arun Majumdar10245952464
Sanjay Gupta9990235039
Biswajeet Pradhan9873532900
Sandeep Kumar94156338652
Jürgen Eckert92136842119
Praveen Kumar88133935718
Tuan Vo-Dinh8669824690
Lawrence Carin8494931928
Anindya Dutta8224833619
Aniruddha B. Pandit8042722552
Krishnendu Chakrabarty7999627583
Ramesh Jain7855637037
Thomas Thundat7862222684
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
2023284
2022849
20213,142
20202,907
20192,779
20182,489