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Institution

Institut national de la recherche agronomique

FacilityRabat, Morocco
About: Institut national de la recherche agronomique is a(n) facility organization based out in Rabat, Morocco. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Gene. The organization has 41515 authors who have published 68362 publication(s) receiving 3292057 citation(s). The organization is also known as: INRA & Inra.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
04 Mar 2010-Nature
TL;DR: The Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing, assembly and characterization of 3.3 million non-redundant microbial genes, derived from 576.7 gigabases of sequence, from faecal samples of 124 European individuals are described, indicating that the entire cohort harbours between 1,000 and 1,150 prevalent bacterial species and each individual at least 160 such species.
Abstract: To understand the impact of gut microbes on human health and well-being it is crucial to assess their genetic potential. Here we describe the Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing, assembly and characterization of 3.3 million non-redundant microbial genes, derived from 576.7 gigabases of sequence, from faecal samples of 124 European individuals. The gene set, ~150 times larger than the human gene complement, contains an overwhelming majority of the prevalent (more frequent) microbial genes of the cohort and probably includes a large proportion of the prevalent human intestinal microbial genes. The genes are largely shared among individuals of the cohort. Over 99% of the genes are bacterial, indicating that the entire cohort harbours between 1,000 and 1,150 prevalent bacterial species and each individual at least 160 such species, which are also largely shared. We define and describe the minimal gut metagenome and the minimal gut bacterial genome in terms of functions present in all individuals and most bacteria, respectively

7,873 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The nature and contents of the various polyphenols present in food sources and the influence of agricultural practices and industrial processes are reviewed, and bioavailability appears to differ greatly between the variousPolyphenols, and the most abundantpolyphenols in the authors' diet are not necessarily those that have the best bioavailability profile.
Abstract: Polyphenols are abundant micronutrients in our diet, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases is emerging. The health effects of polyphenols depend on the amount consumed and on their bioavailability. In this article, the nature and contents of the various polyphenols present in food sources and the influence of agricultural practices and industrial processes are reviewed. Estimates of dietary intakes are given for each class of polyphenols. The bioavailability of polyphenols is also reviewed, with particular focus on intestinal absorption and the influence of chemical structure (eg, glycosylation, esterification, and polymerization), food matrix, and excretion back into the intestinal lumen. Information on the role of microflora in the catabolism of polyphenols and the production of some active metabolites is presented. Mechanisms of intestinal and hepatic conjugation (methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation), plasma transport, and elimination in bile and urine are also described. Pharmacokinetic data for the various polyphenols are compared. Studies on the identification of circulating metabolites, cellular uptake, intracellular metabolism with possible deconjugation, biological properties of the conjugated metabolites, and specific accumulation in some target tissues are discussed. Finally, bioavailability appears to differ greatly between the various polyphenols, and the most abundant polyphenols in our diet are not necessarily those that have the best bioavailability profile. A thorough knowledge of the bioavailability of the hundreds of dietary polyphenols will help us to identify those that are most likely to exert protective health effects.

6,100 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1998
TL;DR: A detailed account of current knowledge of the biosynthesis, compartmentation, and transport of these two important antioxidants, with emphasis on the unique insights and advances gained by molecular exploration are provided.
Abstract: To cope with environmental fluctuations and to prevent invasion by pathogens, plant metabolism must be flexible and dynamic. Active oxygen species, whose formation is accelerated under stress conditions, must be rapidly processed if oxidative damage is to be averted. The lifetime of active oxygen species within the cellular environment is determined by the antioxidative system, which provides crucial protection against oxidative damage. The antioxidative system comprises numerous enzymes and compounds of low molecular weight. While research into the former has benefited greatly from advances in molecular technology, the pathways by which the latter are synthesized have received comparatively little attention. The present review emphasizes the roles of ascorbate and glutathione in plant metabolism and stress tolerance. We provide a detailed account of current knowledge of the biosynthesis, compartmentation, and transport of these two important antioxidants, with emphasis on the unique insights and advances gained by molecular exploration.

5,145 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An algorithm is presented for the multiple alignment of sequences, either proteins or nucleic acids, that is both accurate and easy to use on microcomputers, based on the conventional dynamic-programming method of pairwise alignment.
Abstract: An algorithm is presented for the multiple alignment of sequences, either proteins or nucleic acids, that is both accurate and easy to use on microcomputers. The approach is based on the conventional dynamic-programming method of pairwise alignment. Initially, a hierarchical clustering of the sequences is performed using the matrix of the pairwise alignment scores. The closest sequences are aligned creating groups of aligned sequences. Then close groups are aligned until all sequences are aligned in one group. The pairwise alignments included in the multiple alignment form a new matrix that is used to produce a hierarchical clustering. If it is different from the first one, iteration of the process can be performed. The method is illustrated by an example: a global alignment of 39 sequences of cytochrome c.

4,924 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
12 May 2011-Nature
TL;DR: Three robust clusters (referred to as enterotypes hereafter) are identified that are not nation or continent specific and confirmed in two published, larger cohorts, indicating that intestinal microbiota variation is generally stratified, not continuous.
Abstract: Our knowledge of species and functional composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about variation across the world. By combining 22 newly sequenced faecal metagenomes of individuals from four countries with previously published data sets, here we identify three robust clusters (referred to as enterotypes hereafter) that are not nation or continent specific. We also confirmed the enterotypes in two published, larger cohorts, indicating that intestinal microbiota variation is generally stratified, not continuous. This indicates further the existence of a limited number of well-balanced host-microbial symbiotic states that might respond differently to diet and drug intake. The enterotypes are mostly driven by species composition, but abundant molecular functions are not necessarily provided by abundant species, highlighting the importance of a functional analysis to understand microbial communities. Although individual host properties such as body mass index, age, or gender cannot explain the observed enterotypes, data-driven marker genes or functional modules can be identified for each of these host properties. For example, twelve genes significantly correlate with age and three functional modules with the body mass index, hinting at a diagnostic potential of microbial markers.

4,597 citations


Authors

Showing all 41515 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Daniel J. Jacob16265676530
Jens J. Holst1601536107858
Grant W. Montgomery157926108118
Dirk Inzé14964774468
Bernard Henrissat139593100002
David Julian McClements131113771123
Pascale Cossart12443450101
Christine H. Foyer11649061381
Eric Verdin11537047971
Olivier Hermine111102643779
John Ralph10944239238
Edward M. Rubin10728762667
Gary Williamson10647842960
Stephen L. Hauser10656146248
Serge Hercberg10694256791
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202213
2021566
20201,176
20192,296
20182,295
20172,706