Institute for the Study of Labor
About: Institute for the Study of Labor is a(n) nonprofit organization based out in Bonn, Germany. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Wage & Unemployment. The organization has 2039 authors who have published 13475 publication(s) receiving 439376 citation(s).
Topics: Wage, Unemployment, Earnings, Population, Productivity
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide evidence that free riders are heavily punished even if punishment is costly and does not provide any material benefits for the punisher, and they also show that free riding causes strong negative emotions among cooperators.
Abstract: This paper provides evidence that free riders are heavily punished even if punishment is costly and does not provide any material benefits for the punisher. The more free riders negatively deviate from the group standard the more they are punished. As a consequence, the existence of an opportunity for costly punishment causes a large increase in cooperation levels because potential free riders face a credible threat. We show, in particular, that in the presence of a costly punishment opportunity almost complete cooperation can be achieved and maintained although, under the standard assumptions of rationality and selfishness, there should be no cooperation at all. We also show that free riding causes strong negative emotions among cooperators. The intensity of these emotions is the stronger the more the free riders deviate from the group standard. Our results provide, therefore, support for the hypothesis that emotions are guarantors of credible threats.
TL;DR: The authors report how the economic variables income, unemployment and inflation affect happiness and how institutional factors, in particular the type of democracy and the extent of government decentralization, systematically influence how satisfied individuals are with their life.
Abstract: Over the past few years, there has been a steadily increasing interest on the part of economists in happiness research. We argue that reported subjective well-being is a satisfactory empirical approximation to individual utility and that happiness research is able to contribute important insights for economics. We report how the economic variables income, unemployment and inflation affect happiness as well as how institutional factors, in particular the type of democracy and the extent of government decentralization, systematically influence how satisfied individuals are with their life. We discuss some of the consequences for economic policy and for economic theory.
01 Nov 1991-Research Papers in Economics
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present empirical evidence to assess the relative magnitudes of these three effects as they apply to further trade liberalization in Mexico and investigate whether the size of pollution abatement costs in US industry influences the pattern of international trade and investment.
Abstract: In general, a reduction in trade barriers will affect the environment by expanding the scale of economic activity, by altering the composition of economic activity and by initiating a change in the techniques of production. We present empirical evidence to assess the relative magnitudes of these three effects as they apply to further trade liberalization in Mexico. We first use comparable measures of three air pollutants in a cross-section of urban areas located in 42 countries to study the relationship between air quality and economic growth. We find for two pollutants (sulphur dioxide and `smoke') that concentrations increase with per capita GDP at low levels of national income, but decrease with GDP growth at higher levels of income. We then study the determinants of the industry pattern of US imports from Mexico and of value added by Mexico's maquiladora sector. We investigate whether the size of pollution abatement costs in US industry influences the pattern of international trade and investment. Finally, we use the results from a computable general equilibrium model to study the likely compositional effect of a North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on pollution in Mexico.
TL;DR: This paper investigated whether individuals feel worse off when others around them earn more in other words, do people care about relative position and does "lagging behind the Joneses" diminish well-being?
Abstract: This paper investigates whether individuals feel worse off when others around them earn more In other words, do people care about relative position and does "lagging behind the Joneses" diminish well-being? To answer this question, I match individual-level panel data containing a number of indicators of well-being to information about local average earnings I find that, controlling for an individual's own income, higher earnings of neighbors are associated with lower levels of self-reported happiness The data's panel nature and rich set of measures of well-being and behavior indicate that this association is not driven by selection or by changes in the way people define happiness There is suggestive evidence that the negative effect of increases in neighbors' earnings on own well-being is most likely caused by interpersonal preferences, ie people having utility functions that depend on relative consumption in addition to absolute consumption
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the effect of high school graduation on participation in criminal activity accounting for endogeneity of schooling and found that completing high school reduces the probability of incarceration by about.76% for whites and 3.4% for blacks.
Abstract: We estimate the effect of high school graduation on participation in criminal activity accounting for endogeneity of schooling. We begin by analyzing the effect of high school graduation on incarceration using Census data. Instrumental variable estimates using changes in state compulsory attendance laws as an instrument for high school graduation uncover a significant reduction in incarceration for both blacks and whites. When estimating the impact of high school graduation only, OLS and IV estimators estimate different weighted sums of the impact of each schooling progression on the probability of incarceration. We clarify the relationship between OLS and IV estimates and show that the 'weights' placed on the impact of each schooling progression can explain differences in the estimates. Overall, the estimates suggest that completing high school reduces the probability of incarceration by about .76 percentage points for whites and 3.4 percentage points for blacks. We corroborate these findings using FBI data on arrests that distinguish among different types of crimes. The biggest impacts of graduation are associated with murder, assault, and motor vehicle theft. We also examine the effect of drop out on self-reported crime in the NLSY and find that our estimates for imprisonment and arrest are caused by changes in criminal behavior and not educational differences in the probability of arrest or incarceration conditional on crime. We estimate that the externality of education is about 14-26% of the private return to schooling, suggesting that a significant part of the social return to education comes in the form of externalities from crime reduction.
Showing all 2039 results
|James J. Heckman||175||766||156816|
|Alan B. Krueger||117||402||75442|
|Eric A. Hanushek||109||449||59705|
|M. Hashem Pesaran||102||361||88826|
|Richard B. Freeman||100||860||46932|
|John A. List||91||583||36962|
|Joshua D. Angrist||89||304||59505|
Related Institutions (5)
Center for Economic and Policy Research
4.4K papers, 272K citations
Stockholm School of Economics
4.8K papers, 285.5K citations
European Central Bank
4.7K papers, 231.8K citations
National Bureau of Economic Research
34.1K papers, 2.8M citations
Federal Reserve System
10.3K papers, 511.9K citations