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Institution

Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria

About: Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria is a(n) based out in . It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Adipose tissue. The organization has 528 authors who have published 579 publication(s) receiving 18688 citation(s).


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Journal ArticleDOI
21 Jul 2016-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown how the human gut microbiome impacts the serum metabolome and associates with insulin resistance in 277 non-diabetic Danish individuals and suggested that microbial targets may have the potential to diminish insulin resistance and reduce the incidence of common metabolic and cardiovascular disorders.
Abstract: Insulin resistance is a forerunner state of ischaemic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Here we show how the human gut microbiome impacts the serum metabolome and associates with insulin resistance in 277 non-diabetic Danish individuals. The serum metabolome of insulin-resistant individuals is characterized by increased levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which correlate with a gut microbiome that has an enriched biosynthetic potential for BCAAs and is deprived of genes encoding bacterial inward transporters for these amino acids. Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus are identified as the main species driving the association between biosynthesis of BCAAs and insulin resistance, and in mice we demonstrate that P. copri can induce insulin resistance, aggravate glucose intolerance and augment circulating levels of BCAAs. Our findings suggest that microbial targets may have the potential to diminish insulin resistance and reduce the incidence of common metabolic and cardiovascular disorders.

937 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2016-Gut
TL;DR: A. muciniphila is associated with a healthier metabolic status and better clinical outcomes after CR in overweight/obese adults, and the interaction between gut microbiota ecology and A. muc iniphila warrants further investigation.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes differ from lean and healthy individuals in their abundance of certain gut microbial species and microbial gene richness Abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin-degrading bacterium, has been inversely associated with body fat mass and glucose intolerance in mice, but more evidence is needed in humans The impact of diet and weight loss on this bacterial species is unknown Our objective was to evaluate the association between faecal A muciniphila abundance, faecal microbiome gene richness, diet, host characteristics, and their changes after calorie restriction (CR) DESIGN: The intervention consisted of a 6-week CR period followed by a 6-week weight stabilisation diet in overweight and obese adults (N=49, including 41 women) Faecal A muciniphila abundance, faecal microbial gene richness, diet and bioclinical parameters were measured at baseline and after CR and weight stabilisation RESULTS: At baseline A muciniphila was inversely related to fasting glucose, waist-to-hip ratio and subcutaneous adipocyte diameter Subjects with higher gene richness and A muciniphila abundance exhibited the healthiest metabolic status, particularly in fasting plasma glucose, plasma triglycerides and body fat distribution Individuals with higher baseline A muciniphila displayed greater improvement in insulin sensitivity markers and other clinical parameters after CR These participants also experienced a reduction in A muciniphila abundance, but it remained significantly higher than in individuals with lower baseline abundance A muciniphila was associated with microbial species known to be related to health CONCLUSIONS: A muciniphila is associated with a healthier metabolic status and better clinical outcomes after CR in overweight/obese adults The interaction between gut microbiota ecology and A muciniphila warrants further investigation TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01314690

885 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Increased BMI in adults of European origin is associated with increased methylation at the HIF3A locus in blood cells and in adipose tissue, and perturbation of hypoxia inducible transcription factor pathways could have an important role in the response to increased weight in people.
Abstract: Summary Background Obesity is a major health problem that is determined by interactions between lifestyle and environmental and genetic factors. Although associations between several genetic variants and body-mass index (BMI) have been identified, little is known about epigenetic changes related to BMI. We undertook a genome-wide analysis of methylation at CpG sites in relation to BMI. Methods 479 individuals of European origin recruited by the Cardiogenics Consortium formed our discovery cohort. We typed their whole-blood DNA with the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array. After quality control, methylation levels were tested for association with BMI. Methylation sites showing an association with BMI at a false discovery rate q value of 0·05 or less were taken forward for replication in a cohort of 339 unrelated white patients of northern European origin from the MARTHA cohort. Sites that remained significant in this primary replication cohort were tested in a second replication cohort of 1789 white patients of European origin from the KORA cohort. We examined whether methylation levels at identified sites also showed an association with BMI in DNA from adipose tissue (n=635) and skin (n=395) obtained from white female individuals participating in the MuTHER study. Finally, we examined the association of methylation at BMI-associated sites with genetic variants and with gene expression. Findings 20 individuals from the discovery cohort were excluded from analyses after quality-control checks, leaving 459 participants. After adjustment for covariates, we identified an association (q value ≤0·05) between methylation at five probes across three different genes and BMI. The associations with three of these probes—cg22891070, cg27146050, and cg16672562, all of which are in intron 1 of HIF3A —were confirmed in both the primary and second replication cohorts. For every 0·1 increase in methylation β value at cg22891070, BMI was 3·6% (95% CI 2·4–4·9) higher in the discovery cohort, 2·7% (1·2–4·2) higher in the primary replication cohort, and 0·8% (0·2–1·4) higher in the second replication cohort. For the MuTHER cohort, methylation at cg22891070 was associated with BMI in adipose tissue (p=1·72 × 10 −5 ) but not in skin (p=0·882). We observed a significant inverse correlation (p=0·005) between methylation at cg22891070 and expression of one HIF3A gene-expression probe in adipose tissue. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms—rs8102595 and rs3826795—had independent associations with methylation at cg22891070 in all cohorts. However, these single nucleotide polymorphisms were not significantly associated with BMI. Interpretation Increased BMI in adults of European origin is associated with increased methylation at the HIF3A locus in blood cells and in adipose tissue. Our findings suggest that perturbation of hypoxia inducible transcription factor pathways could have an important role in the response to increased weight in people. Funding The European Commission, National Institute for Health Research, British Heart Foundation, and Wellcome Trust.

616 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that glucocorticoid exposure of ≥10 mg/day is associated with a higher odds of hospitalisation and anti-TNF with a decreased odds ofospitalisation in patients with rheumatic disease.
Abstract: Objectives COVID-19 outcomes in people with rheumatic diseases remain poorly understood. The aim was to examine demographic and clinical factors associated with COVID-19 hospitalisation status in people with rheumatic disease. Methods Case series of individuals with rheumatic disease and COVID-19 from the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance registry: 24 March 2020 to 20 April 2020. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs of hospitalisation. Age, sex, smoking status, rheumatic disease diagnosis, comorbidities and rheumatic disease medications taken immediately prior to infection were analysed. Results A total of 600 cases from 40 countries were included. Nearly half of the cases were hospitalised (277, 46%) and 55 (9%) died. In multivariable-adjusted models, prednisone dose ≥10 mg/day was associated with higher odds of hospitalisation (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.96). Use of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) alone or in combination with biologics/Janus Kinase inhibitors was not associated with hospitalisation (OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.70 to 2.17 and OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.46, respectively). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use was not associated with hospitalisation status (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.06). Tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (anti-TNF) use was associated with a reduced odds of hospitalisation (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.81), while no association with antimalarial use (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.57) was observed. Conclusions We found that glucocorticoid exposure of ≥10 mg/day is associated with a higher odds of hospitalisation and anti-TNF with a decreased odds of hospitalisation in patients with rheumatic disease. Neither exposure to DMARDs nor NSAIDs were associated with increased odds of hospitalisation.

540 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim was to build an algorithm along with a scoring system for histopathologic classification of liver lesions that covers the entire spectrum of lesions in morbidly obese patients, and suggest describing liver lesions using the SAF score.
Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent and being overweight is a significant risk factor. The aim was to build an algorithm along with a scoring system for histopathologic classification of liver lesions that covers the entire spectrum of lesions in morbidly obese patients. A cohort of 679 obese patients undergoing liver biopsy at the time of bariatric surgery was studied. An algorithm for segregating lesions into normal liver, NAFLD, or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was built based on semiquantitative evaluation of steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning, and lobular inflammation. For each case, the SAF score was created including the semiquantitative scoring of steatosis (S), activity (A), and fibrosis (F). Based on the algorithm, 230 obese patients (34%) were categorized as NASH, 291 (43%) as NAFLD without NASH, and 158 (23%) as not NAFLD. The activity score (ballooning + lobular inflammation) enabled discriminating NASH because all patients with NASH had A ≥ 2, whereas no patients with A < 2 had NASH. This score was closely correlated with both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P < 0.0001, analysis of variance [ANOVA]). Comparison of transaminase levels between patients with normal liver and pure steatosis did not reveal significant differences, thus lending support to the proposal not to include steatosis in the activity score but to report it separately in the SAF score. In the validation series, the interobserver agreement for the diagnosis of NASH was excellent (κ = 0.80) between liver pathologists. There was no discrepancy between the initial diagnosis and the diagnosis proposed using the algorithm. Conclusion: We propose a simple but robust algorithm for categorizing liver lesions in NAFLD patients. Because liver lesions in obese patients may display a continuous spectrum of histologic lesions, we suggest describing liver lesions using the SAF score. (HEPATOLOGY 2012;56:1751–1759)

465 citations


Authors

Showing all 528 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Ronald M. Evans199708166722
Thierry Poynard11966864548
Heikki Joensuu10857150300
Gilles Montalescot10064158644
François Cambien9225136260
Antoine Danchin8048330219
Laurence Tiret7919425231
Karine Clément7827532185
Karine Clément7322814710
Pascal Ferré6924123969
Michael T. Osterholm6826022624
Vincent Jarlier6727817060
Florent Soubrier6722624486
Stephen H. Caldwell6630818527
Christian Funck-Brentano6426770432
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202168
202073
201950
201848
201793
201686