Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Facility•La Cañada Flintridge, California, United States•
About: Jet Propulsion Laboratory is a(n) facility organization based out in La Cañada Flintridge, California, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Mars Exploration Program & Telescope. The organization has 8801 authors who have published 14333 publication(s) receiving 548163 citation(s). The organization is also known as: JPL & NASA JPL.
Topics: Mars Exploration Program, Telescope, Galaxy, Coronagraph, Planet
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors have estimated the current economic value of 17 ecosystem services for 16 biomes, based on published studies and a few original calculations, for the entire biosphere, the value (most of which is outside the market) is estimated to be in the range of US$16-54 trillion (10^(12)) per year, with an average of US $33 trillion per year.
Abstract: The services of ecological systems and the natural capital stocks that produce them are critical to the functioning of the Earth's life-support system. They contribute to human welfare, both directly and indirectly, and therefore represent part of the total economic value of the planet. We have estimated the current economic value of 17 ecosystem services for 16 biomes, based on published studies and a few original calculations. For the entire biosphere, the value (most of which is outside the market) is estimated to be in the range of US$16-54 trillion (10^(12)) per year, with an average of US$33 trillion per year. Because of the nature of the uncertainties, this must be considered a minimum estimate. Global gross national product total is around US$18 trillion per year.
01 Feb 2006-The Astronomical Journal
TL;DR: The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) as mentioned in this paper collected 25.4 Tbytes of raw imaging data from two dedicated 1.3 m diameter telescopes located at Mount Hopkins, Arizona and CerroTololo, Chile.
Abstract: Between 1997 June and 2001 February the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) collected 25.4 Tbytes of raw imagingdatacovering99.998%ofthecelestialsphereinthenear-infraredJ(1.25 � m),H(1.65 � m),andKs(2.16 � m) bandpasses. Observations were conducted from two dedicated 1.3 m diameter telescopes located at Mount Hopkins, Arizona,andCerroTololo,Chile.The7.8sofintegrationtimeaccumulatedforeachpointontheskyandstrictquality control yielded a 10 � point-source detection level of better than 15.8, 15.1, and 14.3 mag at the J, H, and Ks bands, respectively, for virtually the entire sky. Bright source extractions have 1 � photometric uncertainty of <0.03 mag and astrometric accuracy of order 100 mas. Calibration offsets between any two points in the sky are <0.02 mag. The 2MASS All-Sky Data Release includes 4.1 million compressed FITS images covering the entire sky, 471 million source extractions in a Point Source Catalog, and 1.6 million objects identified as extended in an Extended Source Catalog.
01 Dec 2010
University of California, Los Angeles1, Jet Propulsion Laboratory2, California Institute of Technology3, University of Arizona4, University of Virginia5, University of California, Davis6, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory7, Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy8, Goddard Space Flight Center9, National Radio Astronomy Observatory10, University of California, Berkeley11, Wilmington University12, Advanced Technology Center13
TL;DR: The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is mapping the whole sky following its launch on 14 December 2009 and completed its first full coverage of the sky on July 17 as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The all sky surveys done by the Palomar Observatory Schmidt, the European Southern Observatory Schmidt, and the United Kingdom Schmidt, the InfraRed Astronomical Satellite and the 2 Micron All Sky Survey have proven to be extremely useful tools for astronomy with value that lasts for decades. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer is mapping the whole sky following its launch on 14 December 2009. WISE began surveying the sky on 14 Jan 2010 and completed its first full coverage of the sky on July 17. The survey will continue to cover the sky a second time until the cryogen is exhausted (anticipated in November 2010). WISE is achieving 5 sigma point source sensitivities better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic in bands centered at wavelengths of 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 micrometers. Sensitivity improves toward the ecliptic poles due to denser coverage and lower zodiacal background. The angular resolution is 6.1", 6.4", 6.5" and 12.0" at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 micrometers, and the astrometric precision for high SNR sources is better than 0.15".
Mohammad H. Forouzanfar1, Lily Alexander, H. Ross Anderson, Victoria F Bachman1 +733 more•Institutions (289)
05 Dec 2015-The Lancet
TL;DR: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) as discussed by the authors provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution.
Abstract: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution. Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol. All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8-58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1-43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5-89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa. Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
01 Jun 1998-The Astronomical Journal
TL;DR: In this article, the authors constructed dynamical models for a sample of 36 nearby galaxies with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry and ground-based kinematics, assuming that each galaxy is axisymmetric, with a two-integral distribution function, arbitrary inclination angle, a position-independent stellar mass-to-light ratio, and a central massive dark object of arbitrary mass M•.
Abstract: We construct dynamical models for a sample of 36 nearby galaxies with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry and ground-based kinematics. The models assume that each galaxy is axisymmetric, with a two-integral distribution function, arbitrary inclination angle, a position-independent stellar mass-to-light ratio , and a central massive dark object (MDO) of arbitrary mass M•. They provide acceptable fits to 32 of the galaxies for some value of M• and ; the four galaxies that cannot be fitted have kinematically decoupled cores. The mass-to-light ratios inferred for the 32 well-fitted galaxies are consistent with the fundamental-plane correlation ∝ L0.2, where L is galaxy luminosity. In all but six galaxies the models require at the 95% confidence level an MDO of mass M• ~ 0.006Mbulge ≡ 0.006L. Five of the six galaxies consistent with M• = 0 are also consistent with this correlation. The other (NGC 7332) has a much stronger upper limit on M•. We predict the second-moment profiles that should be observed at HST resolution for the 32 galaxies that our models describe well. We consider various parameterizations for the probability distribution describing the correlation of the masses of these MDOs with other galaxy properties. One of the best models can be summarized thus: a fraction f 0.97 of early-type galaxies have MDOs, whose masses are well described by a Gaussian distribution in log (M•/Mbulge) of mean -2.28 and standard deviation ~0.51. There is also marginal evidence that M• is distributed differently for core and power law galaxies, with core galaxies having a somewhat steeper dependence on Mbulge.
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|B. P. Crill||148||486||111895|
|H. K. Eriksen||141||474||104208|
|Charles R. Lawrence||141||528||104948|
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|Krzysztof M. Gorski||132||380||105912|
|Mark E. Thompson||128||527||77399|
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