Jodhpur National University
About: Jodhpur National University is a(n) education organization based out in Jodhpur, India. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Transdermal & Oral submucous fibrosis. The organization has 160 authors who have published 216 publication(s) receiving 2381 citation(s).
10 Jan 2012-Carbohydrate Research
TL;DR: In the present study, carboxymethyl chitosan was prepared from chitOSan, crosslinked with glutaraldehyde and evaluated in vitro as a potential carrier for colon targeted drug delivery of ornidazole and showed biphasic release pattern with non-fickian diffusion kinetics at higher pH.
Abstract: In the present study, carboxymethyl chitosan was prepared from chitosan, crosslinked with glutaraldehyde and evaluated in vitro as a potential carrier for colon targeted drug delivery of ornidazole. Ornidazole was incorporated at the time of crosslinking of carboxymethyl chitosan. The chitosan was evaluated for its degree of deacetylation (DD) and average molecular weight; which were found to be 84.6% and 3.5 × 10 4 Da, respectively. The degree of substitution on prepared carboxymethyl chitosan was found to be 0.68. All hydrogel formulations showed more than 85% and 74% yield and drug loading, respectively. The swelling behaviour of prepared hydrogels checked in different pH values, 1.2, 6.8 and 7.4, indicated pH responsive swelling characteristic with very less swelling at pH 1.2 and quick swelling at pH 6.8 followed by linear swelling at pH 7.4 with slight increase. In vitro release profile was carried out at the same conditions as in swelling and drug release was found to be dependant on swelling of hydrogels and showed biphasic release pattern with non-fickian diffusion kinetics at higher pH. The carboxymethylation of chitosan, entrapment of drug and its interaction in prepared hydrogels were checked by FTIR, 1 H NMR, DSC and p-XRD studies, which confirmed formation of carboxymethyl chitosan from chitosan and absence of any significant chemical change in ornidazole after being entrapped in crosslinked hydrogel formulations. The surface morphology of formulation S6 checked before and after dissolution, revealed open channel like pores formation after dissolution.
17 Jan 2011-Regulatory Peptides
TL;DR: The results of present investigation established sitagliptin treatment attenuated renal damage induced by renal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in diabetic rats, and confirmed protection against renal I/R in diabetes.
Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the possible effect of sitagliptin on renal damage induced by renal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in diabetic rats. T2DM in rats was induced by the administration of nicotinamide (230 mg/kg, i.p.), 15 min prior to a single dose of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.v.). In vivo renal I/R was performed in both T2DM and normal rats. Each protocol comprised ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24h and a treatment period of 14 days before induction of ischemia. Sitagliptin treated diabetic rats that underwent renal I/R demonstrated significant decrease in the serum concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (p < 0.01), urea nitrogen (p < 0.01) and creatinine (p < 0.001) compared to renal I/R in diabetic rats. Lipid peroxidation, xanthine oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide level in renal tissue were significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.05 respectively) decreased after renal I/R in sitagliptin treated rats compared to diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes like glutathione (p < 0.05), glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.001), superoxide dismutase (p < 0.05) and catalase (p < 0.001) were significantly increased after renal I/R in sitagliptin treated diabetic rats compared to non treated diabetic rats. The typical DNA laddering was observed when renal I/R performed in diabetic rats, which indicates cell apoptosis. Sitagliptin treated rats demonstrated a decrease in DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. Furthermore, renal histopathology preserved in sitagliptin treated rats verified protection against renal I/R in diabetes. The results of present investigation established sitagliptin treatment attenuated renal damage induced by renal I/R in diabetic rats.
TL;DR: A novel series of Schiff bases of benzothiazole derivatives were synthesized, screened for their antimicrobial activity and structures were elucidated on the basis of elemental analyses and spectral data.
Abstract: As benzothiazole has proven to be good antimicrobial agent, a novel series of Schiff bases of benzothiazole derivatives were synthesized Thus condensation of 5-[2-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl-amino) ethyl]-4-amino-3-mercapto-(4H)-1,2,4-triazole 5 with appropriate aromatic aldehydes afforded 5-[2-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl-amino)ethyl]-4-(arylideneamino)-3-mercapto-(4H)-1,2,4-triazoles 6a-g Structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated on the basis of elemental analyses and spectral data All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity
TL;DR: Results indicate that the formulations of S1-S6 synthesized with different cross-linking agents are safe, when tested in experimental animals, as per OECD guidelines 423 and 407.
Abstract: Nanosponges (NS) show promising results in different fields such as medicine, agriculture, water purification, fire engineering and so on. The present study was designed to evaluate toxicity of different NS formulations (namely, S1-S6) synthesized with different cross-linking agents such as carbonyl diimidazole, pyromellitic dianhydride and hexamethylene diisocynate; and preparation methods in experimental animals. Acute and repeated dose toxicity studies of formulations were carried out as per OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively. For acute toxicity study, formulations were administered to female rats at doses of 300 and 2000 mg/kg orally. The general behaviour of the rats was continuously monitored for 1 h after dosing, periodically during the first 24 h and daily thereafter for a total of 14 days. On day 14, animals were fasted overnight, weighed, and sacrificed. After sacrification, animals were subjected to necropsy. For repeated dose toxicity study, rats of either sex were orally administered with formulations at the dose of 300 mg/kg per day for a period of 28 days. The maximally tolerated dose of all formulations was found to be 2000 mg/kg. Repeated administration of formulations for 28 days did not show any significant changes in haematological and biochemical parameters in experimental animals. These results indicate that the formulations are safe, when tested in experimental animals.
01 Jan 2012-Journal of Mid-life Health
TL;DR: Medications with combination therapies are still needs more investigation to establish as preference in initial stage for fast symptom relief reduced prostate growth and obviously reduce need for BPH-related surgery.
Abstract: In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) there will be a sudden impact on overall quality of life of patient. This disease occurs normally at the age of 40 or above and also is associated with sexual dysfunction. Thus, there is a need of update on current medications of this disease. The presented review provides information on medications available for BPH. Phytotherapies with some improvements in BPH are also included. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE, PUBMED, Sciencedirect and the proceedings of scientific meetings. The search terms were BPH, medications for BPH, drugs for BPH, combination therapies for BPH, Phytotherapies for BPH, Ayurveda and BPH, BPH treatments in Ayurveda. Medications including watchful waitings, Alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination therapies including tamsulosin-dutasteride, doxazosin-finasteride, terazosin-finasteride, tolterodine-tamsulosin and rofecoxib-finasteride were found. Herbal remedies such as Cernilton, Saxifraga stolonifera, Zi-Shen Pill (ZSP), Orbignya speciosa, Phellodendron amurense, Ganoderma lucidum, Serenoa Repens, pumpkin extract and Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) have some improvements on BPH are included. Other than these discussions on Ayurvedic medications, TURP and minimally invasive therapies (MITs) are also included. Recent advancements in terms of newly synthesized molecules are also discussed. Specific alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin will remain preferred choice of urologists for symptom relief. Medications with combination therapies are still needs more investigation to establish as preference in initial stage for fast symptom relief reduced prostate growth and obviously reduce need for BPH-related surgery. Due to lack of proper evidence Phytotherapies are not gaining much advantage. MITs and TURP are expensive and are rarely supported by healthcare systems.
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|Chirag P. Shah||24||71||2081|
|Praveen Kumar Gaur||13||38||539|
|Subhash S. Vaghani||11||17||424|
|N. P. Jivani||9||25||253|
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