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King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

EducationDhahran, Saudi Arabia
About: King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals is a(n) education organization based out in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Adsorption & Corrosion. The organization has 7603 authors who have published 24030 publication(s) receiving 443803 citation(s). The organization is also known as: College of Petroleum and Minerals.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Gregory A. Roth1, Gregory A. Roth2, Degu Abate3, Kalkidan Hassen Abate4  +1025 moreInstitutions (333)
TL;DR: Non-communicable diseases comprised the greatest fraction of deaths, contributing to 73·4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 72·5–74·1) of total deaths in 2017, while communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes accounted for 18·6% (17·9–19·6), and injuries 8·0% (7·7–8·2).
Abstract: Background Global development goals increasingly rely on country-specific estimates for benchmarking a nation's progress. To meet this need, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 estimated global, regional, national, and, for selected locations, subnational cause-specific mortality beginning in the year 1980. Here we report an update to that study, making use of newly available data and improved methods. GBD 2017 provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 282 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2017. Methods The causes of death database is composed of vital registration (VR), verbal autopsy (VA), registry, survey, police, and surveillance data. GBD 2017 added ten VA studies, 127 country-years of VR data, 502 cancer-registry country-years, and an additional surveillance country-year. Expansions of the GBD cause of death hierarchy resulted in 18 additional causes estimated for GBD 2017. Newly available data led to subnational estimates for five additional countries—Ethiopia, Iran, New Zealand, Norway, and Russia. Deaths assigned International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for non-specific, implausible, or intermediate causes of death were reassigned to underlying causes by redistribution algorithms that were incorporated into uncertainty estimation. We used statistical modelling tools developed for GBD, including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm), to generate cause fractions and cause-specific death rates for each location, year, age, and sex. Instead of using UN estimates as in previous versions, GBD 2017 independently estimated population size and fertility rate for all locations. Years of life lost (YLLs) were then calculated as the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. All rates reported here are age-standardised. Findings At the broadest grouping of causes of death (Level 1), non-communicable diseases (NCDs) comprised the greatest fraction of deaths, contributing to 73·4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 72·5–74·1) of total deaths in 2017, while communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) causes accounted for 18·6% (17·9–19·6), and injuries 8·0% (7·7–8·2). Total numbers of deaths from NCD causes increased from 2007 to 2017 by 22·7% (21·5–23·9), representing an additional 7·61 million (7·20–8·01) deaths estimated in 2017 versus 2007. The death rate from NCDs decreased globally by 7·9% (7·0–8·8). The number of deaths for CMNN causes decreased by 22·2% (20·0–24·0) and the death rate by 31·8% (30·1–33·3). Total deaths from injuries increased by 2·3% (0·5–4·0) between 2007 and 2017, and the death rate from injuries decreased by 13·7% (12·2–15·1) to 57·9 deaths (55·9–59·2) per 100 000 in 2017. Deaths from substance use disorders also increased, rising from 284 000 deaths (268 000–289 000) globally in 2007 to 352 000 (334 000–363 000) in 2017. Between 2007 and 2017, total deaths from conflict and terrorism increased by 118·0% (88·8–148·6). A greater reduction in total deaths and death rates was observed for some CMNN causes among children younger than 5 years than for older adults, such as a 36·4% (32·2–40·6) reduction in deaths from lower respiratory infections for children younger than 5 years compared with a 33·6% (31·2–36·1) increase in adults older than 70 years. Globally, the number of deaths was greater for men than for women at most ages in 2017, except at ages older than 85 years. Trends in global YLLs reflect an epidemiological transition, with decreases in total YLLs from enteric infections, respiratory infections and tuberculosis, and maternal and neonatal disorders between 1990 and 2017; these were generally greater in magnitude at the lowest levels of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). At the same time, there were large increases in YLLs from neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases. YLL rates decreased across the five leading Level 2 causes in all SDI quintiles. The leading causes of YLLs in 1990—neonatal disorders, lower respiratory infections, and diarrhoeal diseases—were ranked second, fourth, and fifth, in 2017. Meanwhile, estimated YLLs increased for ischaemic heart disease (ranked first in 2017) and stroke (ranked third), even though YLL rates decreased. Population growth contributed to increased total deaths across the 20 leading Level 2 causes of mortality between 2007 and 2017. Decreases in the cause-specific mortality rate reduced the effect of population growth for all but three causes: substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and skin and subcutaneous diseases. Interpretation Improvements in global health have been unevenly distributed among populations. Deaths due to injuries, substance use disorders, armed conflict and terrorism, neoplasms, and cardiovascular disease are expanding threats to global health. For causes of death such as lower respiratory and enteric infections, more rapid progress occurred for children than for the oldest adults, and there is continuing disparity in mortality rates by sex across age groups. Reductions in the death rate of some common diseases are themselves slowing or have ceased, primarily for NCDs, and the death rate for selected causes has increased in the past decade. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

3,396 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Ibrahim Khan1, Khalid Saeed2, Idrees A. Khan3Institutions (3)
Abstract: This review is provided a detailed overview of the synthesis, properties and applications of nanoparticles (NPs) exist in different forms NPs are tiny materials having size ranges from 1 to 100 nm They can be classified into different classes based on their properties, shapes or sizes The different groups include fullerenes, metal NPs, ceramic NPs, and polymeric NPs NPs possess unique physical and chemical properties due to their high surface area and nanoscale size Their optical properties are reported to be dependent on the size, which imparts different colors due to absorption in the visible region Their reactivity, toughness and other properties are also dependent on their unique size, shape and structure Due to these characteristics, they are suitable candidates for various commercial and domestic applications, which include catalysis, imaging, medical applications, energy-based research, and environmental applications Heavy metal NPs of lead, mercury and tin are reported to be so rigid and stable that their degradation is not easily achievable, which can lead to many environmental toxicities

1,575 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Ibrahim Dincer1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Achieving solutions to environmental problems that we face today requires long-term potential actions for sustainable development. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions. That is why there is an intimate connection between renewable energy and sustainable development. Anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental impacts (focussing on acid precipitation, stratospheric ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect) are comprehensively discussed in this paper. Also, potential solutions to current environmental problems are identified along with renewable energy technologies. The relations between renewable energy and sustainable development are described with practical cases, and an illustrative example is presented. Throughout the paper several issues relating to renewable energy, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. It is believed that the conclusions and recommendations drawn in the present study will be useful to energy scientists and engineers and policy makers.

1,457 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Sadi Assaf1, Sadiq Al-Hejji1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A survey on time performance of different types of construction projects in Saudi Arabia was conducted to determine the causes of delay and their importance according to each of the project participants, i.e., the owner, consultant and the contractor. The field survey conducted included 23 contractors, 19 consultants, and 15 owners. Seventy-three causes of delay were identified during the research. 76% of the contractors and 56% of the consultants indicated that average of time overrun is between 10% and 30% of the original duration. The most common cause of delay identified by all the three parties is “change order”. Surveys concluded that 70% of projects experienced time overrun and found that 45 out of 76 projects considered were delayed.

1,361 citations

Gary Mavko1, Tapan Mukerji1, Jack Dvorkin2Institutions (2)
09 Jan 2020
Abstract: Responding to the latest developments in rock physics research, this popular reference book has been thoroughly updated while retaining its comprehensive coverage of the fundamental theory, concepts, and laboratory results. It brings together the vast literature from the field to address the relationships between geophysical observations and the underlying physical properties of Earth materials - including water, hydrocarbons, gases, minerals, rocks, ice, magma and methane hydrates. This third edition includes expanded coverage of topics such as effective medium models, viscoelasticity, attenuation, anisotropy, electrical-elastic cross relations, and highlights applications in unconventional reservoirs. Appendices have been enhanced with new materials and properties, while worked examples (supplemented by online datasets and MATLAB® codes) enable readers to implement the workflows and models in practice. This significantly revised edition will continue to be the go-to reference for students and researchers interested in rock physics, near-surface geophysics, seismology, and professionals in the oil and gas industries.

1,290 citations


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