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Institution

Korea Institute of Science and Technology

FacilitySeoul, South Korea
About: Korea Institute of Science and Technology is a facility organization based out in Seoul, South Korea. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Thin film & Catalysis. The organization has 15217 authors who have published 27301 publications receiving 625819 citations.
Topics: Thin film, Catalysis, Graphene, Membrane, Oxide


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The expert panel reached a consensus that the optimal version of the Comet assay for identifying agents with genotoxic activity was the alkaline (pH > 13) versions of the assay developed by Singh et al.
Abstract: Atthe International Workshop on Genotoxicity Test Procedures (IWGTP) held in Washington, DC, March 25-26, 1999, an expert panel met to develop guidelines for the use of the single-cell gel (SCG)/Comet assay in genetic toxicology. The expert panel reached a consensus that the optimal version of the Comet assay for identifying agents with genotoxic activity was the alkaline (pH > 13) version of the assay developed by Singh et al. [1988]. The pH > 13 version is capable of detecting DNA single-strand breaks (SSB), alkali-labile sites (ALS), DNA-DNA/DNA-protein cross-linking, and SSB associated with incomplete excision repair sites. Relative to other genotoxicity tests, the advantages of the SCG assay include its demonstrated sensitivity for detecting low levels of DNA damage, the requirement for small numbers of cells per sample, its flexibility, its low costs, its ease of application, and the short time needed to complete a study. The expert panel decided that no single version of the alkaline (pH > 13) Comet assay was clearly superior. However, critical technical steps within the assay were discussed and guidelines developed for preparing slides with agarose gels, lysing cells to liberate DNA, exposing the liberated DNA to alkali to produce single-stranded DNA and to express ALS as SSB, electrophoresing the DNA using pH > 13 alkaline conditions, alkali neutralization, DNA staining, comet visualization, and data collection. Based on the current state of knowledge, the expert panel developed guidelines for conducting in vitro or in vivo Comet assays. The goal of the expert panel was to identify minimal standards for obtaining reproducible and reliable Comet data deemed suitable for regulatory submission. The expert panel used the current Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines for in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicological studies as guides during the development of the corresponding in vitro and in vivo SCG assay guidelines. Guideline topics considered included initial considerations, principles of the test method, description of the test method, procedure, results, data analysis and reporting. Special consideration was given by the expert panel to the potential adverse effect of DNA degradation associated with cytotoxicity on the interpretation of Comet assay results. The expert panel also discussed related SCG methodologies that might be useful in the interpretation of positive Comet data. The related methodologies discussed included: (1) the use of different pH conditions during electrophoreses to discriminate between DNA strand breaks and ALS; (2) the use of repair enzymes or antibodies to detect specific classes of DNA damage; (3) the use of a neutral diffusion assay to identify apoptotic/necrotic cells; and (4) the use of the acellular SCG assay to evaluate the ability of a test substance to interact directly with DNA. The alkaline (pH > 13) Comet assay guidelines developed by the expert panel represent a work in progress. Additional information is needed before the assay can be critically evaluated for its utility in genetic toxicology. The information needed includes comprehensive data on the different sources of variability (e.g., cell to cell, gel to gel, run to run, culture to culture, animal to animal, experiment to experiment) intrinsic to the alkaline (pH > 3) SCG assay, the generation of a large database based on in vitro and in vivo testing using these guidelines, and the results of appropriately designed multilaboratory international validation studies.

4,583 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These guidelines are presented for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.

4,316 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
09 Sep 2016-Science
TL;DR: The mechanical flexibility and easy coating capability offered by MXenes and their composites enable them to shield surfaces of any shape while providing high EMI shielding efficiency.
Abstract: Materials with good flexibility and high conductivity that can provide electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding with minimal thickness are highly desirable, especially if they can be easily processed into films. Two-dimensional metal carbides and nitrides, known as MXenes, combine metallic conductivity and hydrophilic surfaces. Here, we demonstrate the potential of several MXenes and their polymer composites for EMI shielding. A 45-micrometer-thick Ti3C2Tx film exhibited EMI shielding effectiveness of 92 decibels (>50 decibels for a 2.5-micrometer film), which is the highest among synthetic materials of comparable thickness produced to date. This performance originates from the excellent electrical conductivity of Ti3C2Tx films (4600 Siemens per centimeter) and multiple internal reflections from Ti3C2Tx flakes in free-standing films. The mechanical flexibility and easy coating capability offered by MXenes and their composites enable them to shield surfaces of any shape while providing high EMI shielding efficiency.

3,251 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Nanowires produced by the oxygenic phototrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 and the thermophilic, fermentative bacterium Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum reveal that electrically conductive appendages are not exclusive to dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria and may, in fact, represent a common bacterial strategy for efficient electron transfer and energy distribution.
Abstract: Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 produced electrically conductive pilus-like appendages called bacterial nanowires in direct response to electron-acceptor limitation. Mutants deficient in genes for c-type decaheme cytochromes MtrC and OmcA, and those that lacked a functional Type II secretion pathway displayed nanowires that were poorly conductive. These mutants were also deficient in their ability to reduce hydrous ferric oxide and in their ability to generate current in a microbial fuel cell. Nanowires produced by the oxygenic phototrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 and the thermophilic, fermentative bacterium Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum reveal that electrically conductive appendages are not exclusive to dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria and may, in fact, represent a common bacterial strategy for efficient electron transfer and energy distribution.

1,666 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An updated version of wannier90 is presented, wannIER90 2.0, including minor bug fixes and parallel (MPI) execution for band-structure interpolation and the calculation of properties such as density of states, Berry curvature and orbital magnetisation.

1,654 citations


Authors

Showing all 15270 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Yongsun Kim1562588145619
Jeffrey A. Hubbell13358763294
Yang-Kook Sun11778158912
Paras N. Prasad11497757249
Dennis W. Choi9924350284
William Fenical9757834003
Nam-Gyu Park9442048648
Ick Chan Kwon9452331965
Sung-Hou Kim9337134091
Dong-Hyun Kim91210945707
Bongsoo Kim8969826907
Pedro J. J. Alvarez8937834837
Dong Wan Kim8983349632
Paolo Dario86103431541
Soo-Jin Park86128237204
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202340
2022116
20211,630
20201,730
20191,695
20181,500