Education•Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan•
About: Kumamoto University is a(n) education organization based out in Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Cancer. The organization has 19602 authors who have published 35513 publication(s) receiving 901260 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Kumamoto Daigaku.
Topics: Population, Cancer, Cell culture, Stem cell, Cellular differentiation
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Dec 1986-Cancer Research
TL;DR: It is speculated that the tumoritropic accumulation of smancs and other proteins resulted because of the hypervasculature, an enhanced permeability to even macromolecules, and little recovery through either blood vessels or lymphatic vessels in tumors of tumor-bearing mice.
Abstract: We previously found that a polymer conjugated to the anticancer protein neocarzinostatin, named smancs, accumulated more in tumor tissues than did neocarzinostatin. To determine the general mechanism of this tumoritropic accumulation of smancs and other proteins, we used radioactive (51Cr-labeled) proteins of various molecular sizes (Mr 12,000 to 160,000) and other properties. In addition, we used dye-complexed serum albumin to visualize the accumulation in tumors of tumor-bearing mice. Many proteins progressively accumulated in the tumor tissues of these mice, and a ratio of the protein concentration in the tumor to that in the blood of 5 was obtained within 19 to 72 h. A large protein like immunoglobulin G required a longer time to reach this value of 5. The protein concentration ratio in the tumor to that in the blood of neither 1 nor 5 was achieved with neocarzinostatin, a representative of a small protein (Mr 12,000) in all time. We speculate that the tumoritropic accumulation of these proteins resulted because of the hypervasculature, an enhanced permeability to even macromolecules, and little recovery through either blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. This accumulation of macromolecules in the tumor was also found after i.v. injection of an albumin-dye complex (Mr 69,000), as well as after injection into normal and tumor tissues. The complex was retained only by tumor tissue for prolonged periods. There was little lymphatic recovery of macromolecules from tumor tissue. The present finding is of potential value in macromolecular tumor therapeutics and diagnosis.
TL;DR: The basic characteristics of the EPR effect, particularly the factors involved, are described, as well as its modulation for improving delivery of macromolecular drugs to the tumor.
Abstract: Most solid tumors possess unique pathophysiological characteristics that are not observed in normal tissues or organs, such as extensive angiogenesis and hence hypervasculature, defective vascular architecture, impaired lymphatic drainage/recovery system, and greatly increased production of a number of permeability mediators. The phenomenon now known as the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect for lipid and macromolecular agents has been observed to be universal in solid tumors. Primarily, enhanced vascular permeability will sustain an adequate supply of nutrients and oxygen for rapid tumor growth. The EPR effect also provides a great opportunity for more selective targeting of lipid- or polymer-conjugated anticancer drugs, such as SMANCS and PK-1, to the tumor. In the present review, the basic characteristics of the EPR effect, particularly the factors involved, are described, as well as its modulation for improving delivery of macromolecular drugs to the tumor. Tumor-specific vascular physiology is also described.
TL;DR: The results showed that high concentrations of G418 efficiently yielded L cell and CHO cell transfectants stably producing IL-2 at levels comparable with those previously attained using gene amplification.
Abstract: We have developed a new expression vector which allows efficient selection for transfectants that express foreign genes at high levels. The vector is composed of a ubiquitously strong promoter based on the beta-actin promoter, a 69% subregion of the bovine papilloma virus genome, and a mutant neomycin phosphotransferase II-encoding gene driven by a weak promoter, which confers only marginal resistance to G418. Thus, high concentrations of G418 (approx. 800 micrograms/ml) effectively select for transfectants containing a high vector copy number (greater than 300). We tested this system by producing human interleukin-2 (IL-2) in L cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and the results showed that high concentrations of G418 efficiently yielded L cell and CHO cell transfectants stably producing IL-2 at levels comparable with those previously attained using gene amplification. The vector sequences were found to have integrated into the host chromosome, and were stably maintained in the transfectants for several months.
Daniel J. Klionsky1, Kotb Abdelmohsen2, Akihisa Abe3, Joynal Abedin4 +2519 more•Institutions (695)
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
TL;DR: In conclusion, intensive glycemic control by multiple insulin injection therapy can delay the onset and the progression of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy in Japanese patients with NIDDM.
Abstract: To examine whether intensive glycemic control could decrease the frequency or severity of diabetic microvascular complications, we performed a prospective study of Japanese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) treated with multiple insulin injection treatment. A total of 110 patients with NIDDM was randomly assigned to multiple insulin injection treatment group (MIT group) or to conventional insulin injection treatment group (CIT group). Fifty-five NIDDM patients who showed no retinopathy and urinary albumin excretions < 30 mg/24 h at the baseline were evaluated in the primary-prevention cohort, and the other 55 NIDDM patients who showed simple retinopathy and urinary albumin excretions < 300 mg/24 h were evaluated in the secondary-intervention cohort. The appearance and the progression of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy were evaluated every 6 months over a 6-year period. The worsening of complications in this study was defined as an increase of 2 or more steps in the 19 stages of the modified ETDRS interim scale for retinopathy and an increase of one or more steps in 3 stages (normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and albuminuria) for nephropathy. The cumulative percentages of the development and the progression in retinopathy after 6 years were 7.7% for the MIT group and 32.0% for the CIT group in the primary-prevention cohort (P = 0.039), and 19.2% for MIT group and 44.0% for CIT group in the secondary-intervention cohort (P = 0.049). The cumulative percentages of the development and the progression in nephropathy after 6 years were 7.7% for the MIT group and 28.0% for the CIT group in the primary-prevention cohort (P = 0.032), and 11.5% and 32.0%, respectively, for the MIT and CIT groups in the secondary-intervention cohort (P = 0.044). In neurological tests after 6 years, MIT group showed significant improvement in the nerve conduction velocities, while the CIT group showed significant deterioration in the median nerve conduction velocities and vibration threshold. Although both postural hypotension and the coefficient of variation of R-R interval tended to improve in the MIT group, they deteriorated in the CIT group. In conclusion, intensive glycemic control by multiple insulin injection therapy can delay the onset and the progression of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy in Japanese patients with NIDDM. From this study, the glycemic threshold to prevent the onset and the progression of diabetic microangiopathy is indicated as follows; HbA1c < 6.5%, FBG < 110 mg/dl, and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose concentration < 180 mg/dl.
Showing all 19602 results
|Fred H. Gage||216||967||185732|
|George D. Yancopoulos||158||496||93955|
|Thomas E. Mallouk||122||549||52593|
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