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Institution

Lanzhou University

EducationLanzhou, China
About: Lanzhou University is a education organization based out in Lanzhou, China. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Catalysis. The organization has 47296 authors who have published 45871 publications receiving 852048 citations.


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Daniel J. Klionsky1, Kotb Abdelmohsen2, Akihisa Abe3, Joynal Abedin4  +2519 moreInstitutions (695)
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.

4,756 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

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TL;DR: This critical review describes the state-of-the-art development in the design, synthesis, characterisation, and application of the crystalline porous COF materials.
Abstract: Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) represent an exciting new type of porous organic materials, which are ingeniously constructed with organic building units via strong covalent bonds. The well-defined crystalline porous structures together with tailored functionalities have offered the COF materials superior potential in diverse applications, such as gas storage, adsorption, optoelectricity, and catalysis. Since the seminal work of Yaghi and co-workers in 2005, the rapid development in this research area has attracted intensive interest from researchers with diverse expertise. This critical review describes the state-of-the-art development in the design, synthesis, characterisation, and application of the crystalline porous COF materials. Our own opinions on further development of the COF materials are also presented for discussion (155 references).

2,572 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

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TL;DR: It is demonstrated that graphene plasmon resonances can be tuned over a broad terahertz frequency range by changing micro-ribbon width and in situ electrostatic doping and the results represent a first look at light-plasmon coupling in graphene and point to potential graphene-based terAhertz metamaterials.
Abstract: Plasmons describe collective oscillations of electrons. They have a fundamental role in the dynamic responses of electron systems and form the basis of research into optical metamaterials 1–3 . Plasmons of two-dimensional massless electrons, as present in graphene, show unusual behaviour 4–7 that enables new tunable plasmonic metamaterials 8–10 and, potentially, optoelectronic applications in the terahertz frequency range 8,9,11,12 .H ere we explore plasmon excitations in engineered graphene microribbon arrays. We demonstrate that graphene plasmon resonances can be tuned over a broad terahertz frequency range by changing micro-ribbon width and in situ electrostatic doping. The ribbon width and carrier doping dependences of graphene plasmon frequency demonstrate power-law behaviour characteristic of two-dimensional massless Dirac electrons 4–6 . The plasmon resonances have remarkably large oscillator strengths, resulting

2,383 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

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TL;DR: The prevalence of comorbidities in infected patients and risk factors for severe compared with non-severe patients are assessed to help the health sector guide vulnerable populations and assess the risk of deterioration.
Abstract: Background: An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, China; the epidemic is more widespread than initially estimated, with cases now confirmed in multiple countries.

2,149 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

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TL;DR: The first application of a new COF material, COF-LZU1, for highly efficient catalysis, which possesses a two-dimensional eclipsed layered-sheet structure, making its incorporation with metal ions feasible.
Abstract: Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are crystalline porous solids with well-defined two- or three-dimensional molecular structures. Although the structural regularity provides this new type of porous material with high potentials in catalysis, no example has been presented so far. Herein, we report the first application of a new COF material, COF-LZU1, for highly efficient catalysis. The easily prepared imine-linked COF-LZU1 possesses a two-dimensional eclipsed layered-sheet structure, making its incorporation with metal ions feasible. Via a simple post-treatment, a Pd(II)-containing COF, Pd/COF-LZU1, was accordingly synthesized, which showed excellent catalytic activity in catalyzing the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction. The superior utility of Pd/COF-LZU1 in catalysis was elucidated by the broad scope of the reactants and the excellent yields (96-98%) of the reaction products, together with the high stability and easy recyclability of the catalyst. We expect that our approach will further boost research on designing and employing functional COF materials for catalysis.

1,748 citations


Authors

Showing all 47296 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
H. S. Chen1792401178529
Rui Zhang1512625107917
Yi Yang143245692268
Guanrong Chen141165292218
Jie Liu131153168891
Chao Zhang127311984711
Tao Zhang123277283866
Guoyao Wu12276456270
Xin Wang121150364930
Michael A. Hitt12036174448
Meilin Liu11782752603
Stephen Safe11678460588
Can Li116104960617
Zhongfan Liu11574349364
Hong Wang110163351811
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
2022178
20214,732
20204,011
20193,545
20182,936
20172,714