About: Leiden University is a(n) education organization based out in Leiden, Netherlands. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Galaxy. The organization has 33604 authors who have published 72681 publication(s) receiving 3274265 citation(s). The organization is also known as: University of Leiden & Universiteit Leiden.
Abstract: The spatiotemporal group-level patterns of brain macrostructural development are relatively well-documented. Current research emphasizes individual variability in brain development, including its causes and consequences. Although genetic factors and prenatal and perinatal events play critical roles, calls are now made to also study brain development in transactional interplay with the different aspects of an individual's physical and social environment. Such focus is highly relevant for research on adolescence, a period involving a multitude of contextual changes paralleled by continued refinement of complex cognitive and affective neural systems. Here, we discuss associations between selected aspects of an individual's physical and social environment and adolescent brain structural development and possible links to mental health. We also touch on methodological considerations for future research.
Abstract: This study examines the links between parents’ religiosity, the way parents implicitly talk about gender with their preschoolers, and children's gender attitudes and preferences. Additionally, we focused on the degree to which parents’ gender talk mediates the relation between religiosity and children's gender attitudes and preferences. In a sample of 134 families (81 in which at least 1 parent was Christian) with a child aged 4-6 years, we observed both parents’ gender talk while discussing the Gender Stereotypes Picture Book with their child. Fathers and mothers filled out a questionnaire to examine the importance of religion in their daily life and children were interviewed about their gender stereotypical attitudes and personal preferences for gender-typed occupations. Our study revealed that when parents are more religious, their children have more stereotypical gender attitudes. Although we found no significant mediation, we did find evidence for a specific role of (religious) fathers when it comes to communicating gender messages. That is, parents’ level of religiosity was positively related to fathers’, but not to mothers’ gender talk. Additionally, only fathers’ gender talk was positively associated with their children's gender attitudes. Our results illustrate the unique role fathers can play in children's gender development.
Abstract: The functioning of social collectives hinges on the willingness of their members to cooperate with one another and to help those who are in need. Here, we consider how such prosocial behavior is shaped by emotions. We offer an integrative review of theoretical arguments and empirical findings concerning how the experience of emotions influences people's own prosocial behavior (intrapersonal effects) and how the expression of emotions influences the prosocial behavior of others (interpersonal effects). We identified research on five broad clusters of emotions associated with opportunity and affiliation (happiness, contentment, hope), appreciation and self-transcendence (gratitude, awe, elevation, compassion), distress and supplication (sadness, disappointment, fear, anxiety), dominance and status assertion (anger, disgust, contempt, envy, pride), and appeasement and social repair (guilt, regret, shame, embarrassment). Our review reveals notable differences between emotion clusters and between intrapersonal and interpersonal effects. Although some emotions promote prosocial behavior in the self and others, most emotions promote prosocial behavior either in the self (via their intrapersonal effects) or in others (via their interpersonal effects), suggesting trade-offs between the functionality of emotional experience and emotional expression. Moreover, interpersonal effects are modulated by the cooperative versus competitive nature of the situation. We discuss the emerging patterns from a social-functional perspective and conclude that understanding the role of emotion in prosociality requires joint attention to intrapersonal and interpersonal effects.
Abstract: Intergroup conflict can be modeled as a two-level game of strategy in which prosociality can take the form of trust and cooperation within groups or between groups. We review recent work, from our own laboratory and that of others, that shows how biological and sociocultural mechanisms that promote prosocial preferences and beliefs create in-group bounded, parochial cooperation, and, sometimes, parochial competition. We show when and how parochial cooperation and competition intensify rather than mitigate intergroup conflict.
Abstract: Norms prescribe how to make decisions in social situations and play a crucial role in sustaining cooperative relationships and coordinating collective action. However, following norms often requires restricting behavior, demanding to curtail selfishness, or suppressing personal goals. This raises the question why people adhere to norms. We review recent theories and empirical findings that aim at explaining why people follow norms even in private, when violations are difficult to detect and are not sanctioned. We discuss theories of norm internalization, social and self-image concerns, and social learning (i.e. preferences conditional on what others do/believe). Finally, we present two behavioral, incentivized tasks that can be used to elicit norms and measure the individual propensity to follow them.
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|Paul M. Ridker||233||1242||245097|
|André G. Uitterlinden||199||1229||156747|
|Cornelia M. van Duijn||183||1030||146009|
|Brenda W.J.H. Penninx||170||1139||119082|
|Sidney C. Smith||169||467||267569|
|Elliott M. Antman||161||716||179462|
|Monique M.B. Breteler||159||546||93762|
|Lex M. Bouter||158||767||103034|
|Caroline S. Fox||155||599||138951|
|Matt J. Jarvis||144||1064||85559|
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