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Macau University of Science and Technology

EducationMacao, Macau, China
About: Macau University of Science and Technology is a education organization based out in Macao, Macau, China. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Petri net & Population. The organization has 3235 authors who have published 5727 publications receiving 101359 citations. The organization is also known as: MUST.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Daniel J. Klionsky1, Kotb Abdelmohsen2, Akihisa Abe3, Joynal Abedin4  +2519 moreInstitutions (695)
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.

5,187 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
25 Jun 2017
TL;DR: An overview of blockchain architechture is provided and some typical consensus algorithms used in different blockchains are compared and possible future trends for blockchain are laid out.
Abstract: Blockchain, the foundation of Bitcoin, has received extensive attentions recently. Blockchain serves as an immutable ledger which allows transactions take place in a decentralized manner. Blockchain-based applications are springing up, covering numerous fields including financial services, reputation system and Internet of Things (IoT), and so on. However, there are still many challenges of blockchain technology such as scalability and security problems waiting to be overcome. This paper presents a comprehensive overview on blockchain technology. We provide an overview of blockchain architechture firstly and compare some typical consensus algorithms used in different blockchains. Furthermore, technical challenges and recent advances are briefly listed. We also lay out possible future trends for blockchain.

2,642 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The blockchain taxonomy is given, the typical blockchain consensus algorithms are introduced, typical blockchain applications are reviewed, and the future directions in the blockchain technology are pointed out.
Abstract: Blockchain has numerous benefits such as decentralisation, persistency, anonymity and auditability. There is a wide spectrum of blockchain applications ranging from cryptocurrency, financial services, risk management, internet of things (IoT) to public and social services. Although a number of studies focus on using the blockchain technology in various application aspects, there is no comprehensive survey on the blockchain technology in both technological and application perspectives. To fill this gap, we conduct a comprehensive survey on the blockchain technology. In particular, this paper gives the blockchain taxonomy, introduces typical blockchain consensus algorithms, reviews blockchain applications and discusses technical challenges as well as recent advances in tackling the challenges. Moreover, this paper also points out the future directions in the blockchain technology.

1,928 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The integrated gene catalog (IGC) is established comprising 9,879,896 genes, which includes close-to-complete sets of genes for most gut microbes, which are also of considerably higher quality than in previous catalogs.
Abstract: Many analyses of the human gut microbiome depend on a catalog of reference genes. Existing catalogs for the human gut microbiome are based on samples from single cohorts or on reference genomes or protein sequences, which limits coverage of global microbiome diversity. Here we combined 249 newly sequenced samples of the Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract (MetaHit) project with 1,018 previously sequenced samples to create a cohort from three continents that is at least threefold larger than cohorts used for previous gene catalogs. From this we established the integrated gene catalog (IGC) comprising 9,879,896 genes. The catalog includes close-to-complete sets of genes for most gut microbes, which are also of considerably higher quality than in previous catalogs. Analyses of a group of samples from Chinese and Danish individuals using the catalog revealed country-specific gut microbial signatures. This expanded catalog should facilitate quantitative characterization of metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic data from the gut microbiome to understand its variation across populations in human health and disease.

1,507 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
18 Jun 2018
TL;DR: RefineDet as discussed by the authors proposes an anchor refinement module and an object detection module to adjust the locations and sizes of anchors to provide better initialization for the subsequent regressor, which achieves state-of-the-art detection accuracy with high efficiency.
Abstract: For object detection, the two-stage approach (e.g., Faster R-CNN) has been achieving the highest accuracy, whereas the one-stage approach (e.g., SSD) has the advantage of high efficiency. To inherit the merits of both while overcoming their disadvantages, in this paper, we propose a novel single-shot based detector, called RefineDet, that achieves better accuracy than two-stage methods and maintains comparable efficiency of one-stage methods. RefineDet consists of two inter-connected modules, namely, the anchor refinement module and the object detection module. Specifically, the former aims to (1) filter out negative anchors to reduce search space for the classifier, and (2) coarsely adjust the locations and sizes of anchors to provide better initialization for the subsequent regressor. The latter module takes the refined anchors as the input from the former to further improve the regression accuracy and predict multi-class label. Meanwhile, we design a transfer connection block to transfer the features in the anchor refinement module to predict locations, sizes and class labels of objects in the object detection module. The multitask loss function enables us to train the whole network in an end-to-end way. Extensive experiments on PASCAL VOC 2007, PASCAL VOC 2012, and MS COCO demonstrate that RefineDet achieves state-of-the-art detection accuracy with high efficiency. Code is available at

1,306 citations


Showing all 3323 results

Jun Wang1661093141621
Zhuang Liu14953587662
Shuit-Tong Lee138112177112
Han Zhang13097058863
Huanming Yang115634123818
Erwin Neher10720053036
Xiaodong Li104130049024
Xun Xu9746557621
Stan Z. Li9753241793
MengChu Zhou96112436969
Zhigang Zou9272737378
Yong Zhou8468829569
Thomas Efferth8386529089
Kang Zhang8230129563
Wing-Huen Ip7748922163
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