About: Masaryk University is a education organization based out in Brno, Czechia. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Czech. The organization has 10717 authors who have published 24615 publications receiving 470357 citations. The organization is also known as: Masarykova univerzita & Universitas Masarykiana Brunensis.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
22 May 2010
TL;DR: This work describes a Natural Language Processing software framework which is based on the idea of document streaming, i.e. processing corpora document after document, in a memory independent fashion, and implements several popular algorithms for topical inference, including Latent Semantic Analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation in a way that makes them completely independent of the training corpus size.
Abstract: Large corpora are ubiquitous in today's world and memory quickly becomes the limiting factor in practical applications of the Vector Space Model (VSM). We identify gap in existing VSM implementations, which is their scalability and ease of use. We describe a Natural Language Processing software framework which is based on the idea of document streaming, i.e. processing corpora document after document, in a memory independent fashion. In this framework, we implement several popular algorithms for topical inference, including Latent Semantic Analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation, in a way that makes them completely independent of the training corpus size. Particular emphasis is placed on straightforward and intuitive framework design, so that modifications and extensions of the methods and/or their application by interested practitioners are effortless. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach on a real-world scenario of computing document similarities within an existing digital library DML-CZ.
TL;DR: It is shown that on the basis of open-source software development, a fully functional software package can be created that covers the needs of a large part of the scanning probe microscopy user community.
Abstract: In this article, we review special features of Gwyddion—a modular, multiplatform, open-source software for scanning probe microscopy data processing, which is available at http://gwyddion.net/. We describe its architecture with emphasis on modularity and easy integration of the provided algorithms into other software. Special functionalities, such as data processing from non-rectangular areas, grain and particle analysis, and metrology support are discussed as well. It is shown that on the basis of open-source software development, a fully functional software package can be created that covers the needs of a large part of the scanning probe microscopy user community.
TL;DR: The parmbsc0 force field as mentioned in this paper is a refinement of the AMBER parm99 force field, where emphasis has been made on the correct representation of the a/g concerted rotation in nucleic acids (NAs).
Abstract: We present here the parmbsc0 force field, a refinement of the AMBER parm99 force field, where emphasis has been made on the correct representation of the a/g concerted rotation in nucleic acids (NAs). The modified force field corrects overpopulations of the a/g ¼ (g1,t) backbone that were seen in long (more than 10 ns) simulations with previous AMBER parameter sets (parm94-99). The force field has been derived by fitting to high-level quantum mechanical data and verified by comparison with very high-level quantum mechanical calculations and by a very extensive comparison between simulations and experimental data. The set of validation simulations includes two of the longest trajectories published to date for the DNA duplex (200 ns each) and the largest variety of NA structures studied to date (15 different NA families and 97 individual structures). The total simulation time used to validate the force field includes near 1 ms of state-of-the-art molecular dynamics simulations in aqueous solution.
University of Bologna1, University of Utah2, University of Jena3, Imperial College London4, University of Barcelona5, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospital NHS Trust6, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center7, University of Poitiers8, Norwegian University of Science and Technology9, University of Adelaide10, Catholic University of Korea11, University of Chicago12, University of Toronto13, University of Bordeaux14, Masaryk University15, Heidelberg University16, Leipzig University17, University of Naples Federico II18, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center19, University of Turin20, Wayne State University21, Cornell University22, Uppsala University23
TL;DR: Optimal responders to chronic myeloid leukemia treatment should continue therapy indefinitely, with careful surveillance, or they can be enrolled in controlled studies of treatment discontinuation once a deeper molecular response is achieved.
Abstract: Advances in chronic myeloid leukemia treatment, particularly regarding tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mandate regular updating of concepts and management. A European LeukemiaNet expert panel reviewed prior and new studies to update recommendations made in 2009. We recommend as initial treatment imatinib, nilotinib, or dasatinib. Response is assessed with standardized real quantitative polymerase chain reaction and/or cytogenetics at 3, 6, and 12 months. BCR-ABL1 transcript levels ≤10% at 3 months, 10% at 6 months and >1% from 12 months onward define failure, mandating a change in treatment. Similarly, partial cytogenetic response (PCyR) at 3 months and complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) from 6 months onward define optimal response, whereas no CyR (Philadelphia chromosome–positive [Ph+] >95%) at 3 months, less than PCyR at 6 months, and less than CCyR from 12 months onward define failure. Between optimal and failure, there is an intermediate warning zone requiring more frequent monitoring. Similar definitions are provided for response to second-line therapy. Specific recommendations are made for patients in the accelerated and blastic phases, and for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Optimal responders should continue therapy indefinitely, with careful surveillance, or they can be enrolled in controlled studies of treatment discontinuation once a deeper molecular response is achieved.
Showing all 10717 results
|David W. Johnson||160||2714||140778|
|Christopher K. Glass||154||427||108997|
|Thomas J. Smith||140||1775||113919|
|Andrew J.S. Coats||127||820||94490|
|Alan G. Marshall||107||1060||46904|
|Des R. Richardson||89||418||30934|
|Gerrit E. W. Bauer||76||655||27409|
|Herbert W. Roesky||74||1683||33661|
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