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Institution

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

EducationCambridge, Massachusetts, United States
About: Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a(n) education organization based out in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Laser. The organization has 116795 authors who have published 268000 publication(s) receiving 18272025 citation(s). The organization is also known as: MIT & M.I.T..
Topics: Population, Laser, Galaxy, Gene, Scattering
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Journal ArticleDOI
10 Dec 2010-Science
TL;DR: An ingenious in situ transmission electron microscope experiment that uses a low–vapor pressure ionic liquid electrolyte to allow imaging of a SnO2 nanowire electrode in an “open” electrochemical cell raises the question of whether such one-dimensional phase transformations can be induced in other materials.
Abstract: Innovations in the battery field are infrequent and hard-won. New electrochemical systems (a new positive or negative electrode, electrolyte, or combination thereof) reach the marketplace only once every few years, and the energy density of lithium-ion batteries as a class has increased on average by only 8 to 9% per year since the early 1990s. Thus, in the burgeoning field of nanoscale electrode materials, skepticism regarding new claims is perhaps not surprising because of the many requirements that any battery electrode must simultaneously meet to be commercialized. One route by which battery performance can be compromised is by mechanical failure due to the large volume changes associated with the charge-discharge cycle. On page 1515 of this issue, Huang et al. ( 1 ) report an ingenious in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) experiment that uses a low–vapor pressure ionic liquid electrolyte to allow imaging of a SnO2 nanowire electrode in an “open” electrochemical cell. They observe a reaction mechanism in the SnO2 nanowires that progresses sequentially along the nanowire from end to end, allowing them to accommodate a ∼250% volume change without fracturing and at practical charging rates. These intriguing results raise the question of whether such one-dimensional phase transformations can be induced in other materials.

322 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
07 Feb 2018-
TL;DR: The proposed method uses a spatial transform layer to reconstruct one image from another while imposing smoothness constraints on the registration field, and demonstrates registration accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art 3D image registration, while operating orders of magnitude faster in practice.
Abstract: We present a fast learning-based algorithm for deformable, pairwise 3D medical image registration. Current registration methods optimize an objective function independently for each pair of images, which can be time-consuming for large data. We define registration as a parametric function, and optimize its parameters given a set of images from a collection of interest. Given a new pair of scans, we can quickly compute a registration field by directly evaluating the function using the learned parameters. We model this function using a CNN, and use a spatial transform layer to reconstruct one image from another while imposing smoothness constraints on the registration field. The proposed method does not require supervised information such as ground truth registration fields or anatomical landmarks. We demonstrate registration accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art 3D image registration, while operating orders of magnitude faster in practice. Our method promises to significantly speed up medical image analysis and processing pipelines, while facilitating novel directions in learning-based registration and its applications. Our code is available at https://github.com/balakg/voxelmorph.

322 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
07 Jun 2011-Lab on a Chip
TL;DR: A high-throughput size-based separation method for processing diluted blood using inertial microfluidics is introduced, demonstrating the isolation of cancer cells spiked in blood by exploiting the difference in size between CTCs and hematologic cells.
Abstract: Blood is a highly complex bio-fluid with cellular components making up >40% of the total volume, thus making its analysis challenging and time-consuming. In this work, we introduce a high-throughput size-based separation method for processing diluted blood using inertial microfluidics. The technique takes advantage of the preferential cell focusing in high aspect-ratio microchannels coupled with pinched flow dynamics for isolating low abundance cells from blood. As an application of the developed technique, we demonstrate the isolation of cancer cells (circulating tumor cells (CTCs)) spiked in blood by exploiting the difference in size between CTCs and hematologic cells. The microchannel dimensions and processing parameters were optimized to enable high throughput and high resolution separation, comparable to existing CTC isolation technologies. Results from experiments conducted with MCF-7 cells spiked into whole blood indicate >80% cell recovery with an impressive 3.25 × 10(5) fold enrichment over red blood cells (RBCs) and 1.2 × 10(4) fold enrichment over peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). In spite of a 20× sample dilution, the fast operating flow rate allows the processing of ∼10(8) cells min(-1) through a single microfluidic device. The device design can be easily customized for isolating other rare cells from blood including peripheral blood leukocytes and fetal nucleated red blood cells by simply varying the 'pinching' width. The advantage of simple label-free separation, combined with the ability to retrieve viable cells post enrichment and minimal sample pre-processing presents numerous applications for use in clinical diagnosis and conducting fundamental studies.

322 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data suggest that phosphate ions imported into glutamatergic neurons through transporters such as EAT-4 and BNPI are required specifically for glutamatorgic neurotransmission.
Abstract: The Caenorhabditis elegans gene eat-4 affects multiple glutamatergic neurotransmission pathways. We find that eat-4 encodes a protein similar in sequence to a mammalian brain-specific sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporter I (BNPI). Like BNPI in the rat CNS, eat-4 is expressed predominantly in a specific subset of neurons, including several proposed to be glutamatergic. Loss-of-function mutations in eat-4 cause defective glutamatergic chemical transmission but appear to have little effect on other functions of neurons. Our data suggest that phosphate ions imported into glutamatergic neurons through transporters such as EAT-4 and BNPI are required specifically for glutamatergic neurotransmission.

322 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Using the theory developed in Part I, calculations have been carried out to show the evolution of the mass flow, pressure rise, and rotating-stall cell amplitude during compression system post-stall transients. In particular, it is shown that the unsteady growth or decay of the stall cell can have a significant effect on the instantaneous compressor pumping characteristic and hence on the overall system behavior. A limited parametric study is carried out to illustrate the impact of different system features on transient behavior. It is shown, for example, that the ultimate mode of system response, surge or stable rotating stall, depends not only on the B parameter, but also on the compressor length-to-radius ratio. Small values of this latter quantity tend to favor the occurrence of surge, as do large values of B. Based on the analytical and numerical results, several specific topics are suggested for future research on post-stall transients.

322 citations


Authors

Showing all 116795 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Eric S. Lander301826525976
Robert Langer2812324326306
George M. Whitesides2401739269833
Trevor W. Robbins2311137164437
George Davey Smith2242540248373
Yi Cui2201015199725
Robert J. Lefkowitz214860147995
David J. Hunter2131836207050
Daniel Levy212933194778
Rudolf Jaenisch206606178436
Mark J. Daly204763304452
David Miller2032573204840
David Baltimore203876162955
Rakesh K. Jain2001467177727
Ronald M. Evans199708166722
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
2022141
202110,566
202011,920
201911,205
201810,883
201710,505

Top Attributes

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Institution's top 5 most impactful journals

Social Science Research Network

5.3K papers, 337.8K citations

Physical Review Letters

3.8K papers, 425.2K citations

The Astrophysical Journal

2.6K papers, 226.6K citations

Nature

2.4K papers, 814.9K citations