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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

EducationCambridge, Massachusetts, United States
About: Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a(n) education organization based out in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Laser. The organization has 116795 authors who have published 268000 publication(s) receiving 18272025 citation(s). The organization is also known as: MIT & M.I.T..
Topics: Population, Laser, Galaxy, Gene, Scattering
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Journal ArticleDOI
Eric S. Lander1, Lauren Linton1, Bruce W. Birren1, Chad Nusbaum1, Michael C. Zody1, Jennifer Baldwin1, Keri Devon1, Ken Dewar1, Michael Doyle1, William Fitzhugh1, Roel Funke1, Diane Gage1, Katrina Harris1, Andrew Heaford1, John Howland1, Lisa Kann1, Jessica A. Lehoczky1, Rosie Levine1, Paul A. McEwan1, Kevin McKernan1, James Meldrim1, Jill P. Mesirov1, Cher Miranda1, William Morris1, Jerome Naylor1, Christina Raymond1, Mark Rosetti1, Ralph Santos1, Andrew Sheridan1, Carrie Sougnez1, Nicole Stange-Thomann1, Nikola Stojanovic1, Aravind Subramanian1, Dudley Wyman1, Jane Rogers2, John Sulston2, R Ainscough2, Stephan Beck2, David Bentley2, John Burton2, C M Clee2, Nigel P. Carter2, Alan Coulson2, Rebecca Deadman2, Panos Deloukas2, Andrew Dunham2, Ian Dunham2, Richard Durbin2, Lisa French2, Darren Grafham2, Simon G. Gregory2, Tim Hubbard2, Sean Humphray2, Adrienne Hunt2, Matthew Jones2, Christine Lloyd2, Amanda McMurray2, Lucy Matthews2, Simon Mercer2, Sarah Milne2, James C. Mullikin2, Andrew J. Mungall2, Robert W. Plumb2, Mark T. Ross2, Ratna Shownkeen2, Sarah Sims2, Robert H. Waterston3, Richard K. Wilson3, LaDeana W. Hillier3, John Douglas Mcpherson3, Marco A. Marra3, Elaine R. Mardis3, Lucinda Fulton3, Asif T. Chinwalla3, Kymberlie H. Pepin3, Warren Gish3, Stephanie L. Chissoe3, Michael C. Wendl3, Kim D. Delehaunty3, Tracie L. Miner3, Andrew Delehaunty3, Jason B. Kramer3, Lisa Cook3, Robert S. Fulton3, Douglas L. Johnson3, Patrick Minx3, Sandra W. Clifton3, Trevor Hawkins4, Elbert Branscomb4, Paul Predki4, Paul G. Richardson4, Sarah Wenning4, Tom Slezak4, Norman A. Doggett4, Jan Fang Cheng4, Anne S. Olsen4, Susan Lucas4, Christopher J. Elkin4, Edward Uberbacher4, Marvin Frazier4, Richard A. Gibbs5, Donna M. Muzny5, Steven E. Scherer5, John Bouck5, Erica Sodergren5, Kim C. Worley5, Catherine M. Rives5, James H. Gorrell5, Michael L. Metzker5, Susan L. Naylor6, Raju Kucherlapati7, David L. Nelson8, George M. Weinstock8, Yoshiyuki Sakaki, Asao Fujiyama, Masahira Hattori, Tetsushi Yada, Atsushi Toyoda, Takehiko Itoh, Chiharu Kawagoe, Hidemi Watanabe, Yasushi Totoki, Todd D. Taylor, Jean Weissenbach9, Roland Heilig9, William Saurin9, François Artiguenave9, Philippe Brottier9, Thomas Brüls9, Eric Pelletier9, Catherine Robert9, Patrick Wincker9, André Rosenthal10, Matthias Platzer10, Gerald Nyakatura10, Stefan Taudien10, Andreas Rump10, Douglas R. Smith, Lynn Doucette-Stamm, Marc Rubenfield, Keith Weinstock, Mei Lee Hong, Joann Dubois, Huanming Yang11, Jun Yu11, Jian Wang11, Guyang Huang12, Jun Gu12, Leroy Hood13, Lee Rowen13, Anup Madan13, Shizen Qin13, Ronald W. Davis14, Nancy A. Federspiel14, A. Pia Abola14, Michael Proctor14, Bruce A. Roe15, Feng Chen15, Huaqin Pan15, Juliane Ramser16, Hans Lehrach16, Richard Reinhardt16, W. Richard McCombie17, Melissa De La Bastide17, Neilay Dedhia17, H. Blöcker, K. Hornischer, Gabriele Nordsiek, Richa Agarwala10, L. Aravind10, Jeffrey A. Bailey18, Alex Bateman2, Serafim Batzoglou1, Ewan Birney, Peer Bork19, Daniel G. Brown1, Christopher B. Burge1, Lorenzo Cerutti, Hsiu Chuan Chen10, Deanna M. Church10, Michele Clamp2, Richard R. Copley, Tobias Doerks19, Sean R. Eddy3, Evan E. Eichler18, Terrence S. Furey20, James E. Galagan1, James G. R. Gilbert2, Cyrus L. Harmon21, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, David Haussler20, Henning Hermjakob, Karsten Hokamp22, Wonhee Jang10, L. Steven Johnson3, Thomas A. Jones3, Simon Kasif1, Arek Kaspryzk, Scot Kennedy20, W. James Kent20, Paul Kitts10, Eugene V. Koonin10, Ian F Korf3, David Kulp21, Doron Lancet23, Todd M. Lowe14, Aoife McLysaght22, Tarjei S. Mikkelsen1, John V. Moran24, Nicola Mulder, Victor J. Pollara1, Chris P. Ponting25, Greg Schuler10, Jörg Schultz, Guy Slater, Arian F.A. Smit13, Elia Stupka, Joseph Szustakowki1, Danielle Thierry-Mieg10, Jean Thierry-Mieg10, Lukas Wagner10, John W. Wallis3, Raymond Wheeler21, Alan Williams21, Yuri I. Wolf10, Kenneth H. Wolfe22, Shiaw Pyng Yang3, Ru Fang Yeh1, Francis S. Collins10, Mark S. Guyer10, Jane Peterson10, Adam Felsenfeld10, Kris A. Wetterstrand10, Richard M. Myers14, Jeremy Schmutz14, Mark Dickson14, Jane Grimwood14, David R. Cox14, Maynard V. Olson26, Rajinder Kaul26, Christopher K. Raymond26, Nobuyoshi Shimizu27, Kazuhiko Kawasaki27, Shinsei Minoshima27, Glen A. Evans28, Maria Athanasiou28, Roger A. Schultz28, Aristides Patrinos4, Michael J. Morgan29 
15 Feb 2001-Nature
TL;DR: The results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome are reported and an initial analysis is presented, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the sequence.
Abstract: The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the sequence.

21,023 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The number and variety of known compounrjs between proteins and small molecules are increasing rapidly and make a fascinating story. For instance, there are the compounds of iron, which is carried in our blood plasma by a globulin, two atoms of iron to each molecule of globulin held in a rather tight salt-lie binding? which is stored as ferric hydroxide by ferritin much as water is held by a sponge? and which functions in hemoglobin, four iron atoms in tight porphyrin complexes in each protein molecule. Or, there are many compounds of serum albumin, which was used during the war by many chemists, most of whom found at least one 6ew compound. This molecule, which has about a hundred carboxyl radicals, each of which can take on a proton, and about the same number of ammonium radicals, each of which can dissociate a proton, has one single radical which combines with mercuric ion so firmly that two albumin molecules will share one mercury atom if there are not enough to go a r ~ u n d . ~ At the present stage of rapid growth of known compounds, it seems more profitable for me to make no attempt to catalogue the various classes of compounds, but to discuss the general principles involved, in the hope that this will make more useful the information which is accumulating so rapidy from so many laboratories. We want to know of each molecule or ion whicb can combine with a protein molecule, /‘How many? How tightly? Where? Why?” The answer to the first two questions, and sometimes to the third, can be furnished by the physical chemist, but he will often need to team with an organic chemist to determine the effect of altering specified groups to find if they are reactive. The determination of function iç a complicated problem which may be the business of the physiologist or physiological chemist. But the answers to both of the more complicated problems will depend on the answers to the simpler questions, “HOW many?” and “How tightly bound?” If the various groups on a protein molecule act independently, we can apply the law of mass action as though each group were on a separate molecule,4 and the strength of binding can be expressed as the constant for each group. Often, a single constant will express the behavior of severa1 groups. If the constants are widely spread, as those for the reaction of hydrogen ion with carboxylate ions, with imidazoles and with amines, the interpretation is simple. If the separation is less, it is very difficult to distinguish the case of different intrinsic affinities from the case of interaction among the groups. We know that such interaction occurs in simple moleculeç in which a reac-

20,037 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: I. Introduction, 65. — II. A model of long-run growth, 66. — III. Possible growth patterns, 68. — IV. Examples, 73. — V. Behavior of interest and wage rates, 78. — VI. Extensions, 85. — VII. Qualifications, 91.

18,947 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
23 Jan 2009-Cell
TL;DR: The current understanding of miRNA target recognition in animals is outlined and the widespread impact of miRNAs on both the expression and evolution of protein-coding genes is discussed.
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous ∼23 nt RNAs that play important gene-regulatory roles in animals and plants by pairing to the mRNAs of protein-coding genes to direct their posttranscriptional repression. This review outlines the current understanding of miRNA target recognition in animals and discusses the widespread impact of miRNAs on both the expression and evolution of protein-coding genes.

16,392 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: This chapter assumes acquaintance with the principles and practice of PCR, as outlined in, for example, refs.
Abstract: 1. Introduction Designing PCR and sequencing primers are essential activities for molecular biologists around the world. This chapter assumes acquaintance with the principles and practice of PCR, as outlined in, for example, refs. 1–4. Primer3 is a computer program that suggests PCR primers for a variety of applications, for example to create STSs (sequence tagged sites) for radiation hybrid mapping (5), or to amplify sequences for single nucleotide polymor-phism discovery (6). Primer3 can also select single primers for sequencing reactions and can design oligonucleotide hybridization probes. In selecting oligos for primers or hybridization probes, Primer3 can consider many factors. These include oligo melting temperature, length, GC content , 3′ stability, estimated secondary structure, the likelihood of annealing to or amplifying undesirable sequences (for example interspersed repeats), the likelihood of primer–dimer formation between two copies of the same primer, and the accuracy of the source sequence. In the design of primer pairs Primer3 can consider product size and melting temperature, the likelihood of primer– dimer formation between the two primers in the pair, the difference between primer melting temperatures, and primer location relative to particular regions of interest or to be avoided.

16,058 citations


Showing all 116795 results

Eric S. Lander301826525976
Robert Langer2812324326306
George M. Whitesides2401739269833
Trevor W. Robbins2311137164437
George Davey Smith2242540248373
Yi Cui2201015199725
Robert J. Lefkowitz214860147995
David J. Hunter2131836207050
Daniel Levy212933194778
Rudolf Jaenisch206606178436
Mark J. Daly204763304452
David Miller2032573204840
David Baltimore203876162955
Rakesh K. Jain2001467177727
Ronald M. Evans199708166722
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