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Nanyang Technological University

EducationSingapore, Singapore
About: Nanyang Technological University is a(n) education organization based out in Singapore, Singapore. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Graphene & Population. The organization has 48003 authors who have published 112815 publication(s) receiving 3294199 citation(s). The organization is also known as: NTU & Universiti Teknologi Nanyang.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Manishkumar Chhowalla1, Hyeon Suk Shin2, Goki Eda3, Lain-Jong Li4  +2 moreInstitutions (5)
TL;DR: This Review describes how the tunable electronic structure of TMDs makes them attractive for a variety of applications, as well as electrically active materials in opto-electronics.
Abstract: Ultrathin two-dimensional nanosheets of layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are fundamentally and technologically intriguing. In contrast to the graphene sheet, they are chemically versatile. Mono- or few-layered TMDs - obtained either through exfoliation of bulk materials or bottom-up syntheses - are direct-gap semiconductors whose bandgap energy, as well as carrier type (n- or p-type), varies between compounds depending on their composition, structure and dimensionality. In this Review, we describe how the tunable electronic structure of TMDs makes them attractive for a variety of applications. They have been investigated as chemically active electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution and hydrosulfurization, as well as electrically active materials in opto-electronics. Their morphologies and properties are also useful for energy storage applications such as electrodes for Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors.

6,713 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Guichuan Xing1, Nripan Mathews1, Shuangyong Sun, Swee Sien Lim1  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
18 Oct 2013-Science
TL;DR: Two studies show, using a variety of time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopic techniques, that perovskite materials manifest relatively long diffusion paths for charge carriers energized by light absorption, highlighting effective carrier diffusion as a fruitful parameter for further optimization.
Abstract: Low-temperature solution-processed photovoltaics suffer from low efficiencies because of poor exciton or electron-hole diffusion lengths (typically about 10 nanometers). Recent reports of highly efficient CH3NH3PbI3-based solar cells in a broad range of configurations raise a compelling case for understanding the fundamental photophysical mechanisms in these materials. By applying femtosecond transient optical spectroscopy to bilayers that interface this perovskite with either selective-electron or selective-hole extraction materials, we have uncovered concrete evidence of balanced long-range electron-hole diffusion lengths of at least 100 nanometers in solution-processed CH3NH3PbI3. The high photoconversion efficiencies of these systems stem from the comparable optical absorption length and charge-carrier diffusion lengths, transcending the traditional constraints of solution-processed semiconductors.

5,100 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Haiping Yang1, Rong Yan2, Hanping Chen1, Dong Ho Lee2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Aug 2007-Fuel
Abstract: The pyrolysis characteristics of three main components (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) of biomass were investigated using, respectively, a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) detector and a pack bed. The releasing of main gas products from biomass pyrolysis in TGA was on-line measured using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In thermal analysis, the pyrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose occurred quickly, with the weight loss of hemicellulose mainly happened at 220–315 °C and that of cellulose at 315–400 °C. However, lignin was more difficult to decompose, as its weight loss happened in a wide temperature range (from 160 to 900 °C) and the generated solid residue was very high (∼40 wt.%). From the viewpoint of energy consumption in the course of pyrolysis, cellulose behaved differently from hemicellulose and lignin; the pyrolysis of the former was endothermic while that of the latter was exothermic. The main gas products from pyrolyzing the three components were similar, including CO 2 , CO, CH 4 and some organics. The releasing behaviors of H 2 and the total gas yield were measured using Micro-GC when pyrolyzing the three components in a packed bed. It was observed that hemicellulose had higher CO 2 yield, cellulose generated higher CO yield, and lignin owned higher H 2 and CH 4 yield. A better understanding to the gas products releasing from biomass pyrolysis could be achieved based on this in-depth investigation on three main biomass components.

4,760 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Daniel J. Klionsky1, Kotb Abdelmohsen2, Akihisa Abe3, Joynal Abedin4  +2519 moreInstitutions (695)
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.

4,756 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: DIAMOND is introduced, an open-source algorithm based on double indexing that is 20,000 times faster than BLASTX on short reads and has a similar degree of sensitivity.
Abstract: The alignment of sequencing reads against a protein reference database is a major computational bottleneck in metagenomics and data-intensive evolutionary projects. Although recent tools offer improved performance over the gold standard BLASTX, they exhibit only a modest speedup or low sensitivity. We introduce DIAMOND, an open-source algorithm based on double indexing that is 20,000 times faster than BLASTX on short reads and has a similar degree of sensitivity.

4,426 citations


Showing all 48005 results

Michael Grätzel2481423303599
Yang Gao1682047146301
Gang Chen1673372149819
Chad A. Mirkin1641078134254
Hua Zhang1631503116769
Xiang Zhang1541733117576
Vivek Sharma1503030136228
Seeram Ramakrishna147155299284
Frede Blaabjerg1472161112017
Yi Yang143245692268
Joseph J.Y. Sung142124092035
Shi-Zhang Qiao14252380888
Paul M. Matthews14061788802
Bin Liu138218187085
George C. Schatz137115594910
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