About: National Brain Research Centre is a government organization based out in Gurgaon, India. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Microglia & Japanese encephalitis. The organization has 472 authors who have published 717 publications receiving 22701 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
TL;DR: It is suggested that the increased microglial activation following JEV infection influences the outcome of viral pathogenesis, and triggers bystander damage, as the animals eventually succumb to infection.
Abstract: While a number of studies have documented the importance of microglia in central nervous system (CNS) response to injury, infection and disease, little is known regarding its role in viral encephalitis. We therefore, exploited an experimental model of Japanese Encephalitis, to better understand the role played by microglia in Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) infection. Lectin staining performed to assess microglial activation indicated a robust increase in reactive microglia following infection. A difference in the topographic distribution of activated, resting, and phagocytic microglia was also observed. The levels of various proinflammatory mediators, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), IL-6, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and MCP-1 that have been implicated in microglial response to an activational state was significantly elevated following infection. These cytokines exhibited region selective expression in the brains of infected animals, with the highest expression observed in the hippocampus. Moreover, the expression of neuronal specific nuclear protein NeuN was markedly downregulated during progressive infection indicating neuronal loss. In vitro studies further confirmed that microglial activation and subsequent release of various proinflammatory mediators induces neuronal death following JEV infection. Although initiation of immune responses by microglial cells is an important protective mechanism in the CNS, unrestrained inflammatory responses may result in irreparable brain damage. Our findings suggest that the increased microglial activation following JEV infection influences the outcome of viral pathogenesis. It is likely that the increased microglial activation triggers bystander damage, as the animals eventually succumb to infection.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that CHIP (C terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein) co-immunoprecipitates with the polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin or ataxin-3 and associates with their aggregates and suppressive effect is more prominent when CHIP is overexpressed along with Hsc70.
TL;DR: The remarkable therapeutic effect of W. somnifera mediated through up-regulation of liver LRP indicates that targeting the periphery offers a unique mechanism for Aβ clearance and reverses the behavioral deficits and pathology seen in Alzheimer's disease models.
Abstract: A 30-d course of oral administration of a semipurified extract of the root of Withania somnifera consisting predominantly of withanolides and withanosides reversed behavioral deficits, plaque pathology, accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides (A beta) and oligomers in the brains of middle-aged and old APP/PS1 Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice. It was similarly effective in reversing behavioral deficits and plaque load in APPSwInd mice (line J20). The temporal sequence involved an increase in plasma A beta and a decrease in brain A beta monomer after 7 d, indicating increased transport of A beta from the brain to the periphery. Enhanced expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) in brain microvessels and the A beta-degrading protease neprilysin (NEP) occurred 14-21 d after a substantial decrease in brain A beta levels. However, significant increase in liver LRP and NEP occurred much earlier, at 7 d, and were accompanied by a rise in plasma sLRP, a peripheral sink for brain A beta. In WT mice, the extract induced liver, but not brain, LRP and NEP and decreased plasma and brain A beta, indicating that increase in liver LRP and sLRP occurring independent of A beta concentration could result in clearance of A beta. Selective down-regulation of liver LRP, but not NEP, abrogated the therapeutic effects of the extract. The remarkable therapeutic effect of W. somnifera mediated through up-regulation of liver LRP indicates that targeting the periphery offers a unique mechanism for A beta clearance and reverses the behavioral deficits and pathology seen in Alzheimer's disease models.
TL;DR: The exigency of developing a worldwide effort to acknowledge the prime importance of performing an extensive study of JE and the outlook for a possible future breakthrough addressing this killer disease are focused on.
Abstract: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading form of viral encephalitis in Asia. It is caused by the JE virus (JEV), which belongs to the family Flaviviridae. JEV is endemic to many parts of Asia, where periodic outbreaks take hundreds of lives. Despite the catastrophes it causes, JE has remained a tropical disease uncommon in the West. With rapid globalization and climatic shift, JEV has started to emerge in areas where the threat was previously unknown. Scientific evidence predicts that JEV will soon become a global pathogen and cause of worldwide pandemics. Although some research documents JEV pathogenesis and drug discovery, worldwide awareness of the need for extensive research to deal with JE is still lacking. This review focuses on the exigency of developing a worldwide effort to acknowledge the prime importance of performing an extensive study of this thus far neglected tropical viral disease. This review also outlines the pathogenesis, the scientific efforts channeled into develop a therapy, and the outlook for a possible future breakthrough addressing this killer disease.
Showing all 478 results
|Alok C. Gupta
|Nihar Ranjan Jana
|Shankar J. Chinta
|Manoj Kumar Mishra
Related Institutions (5)
National Institutes of Health
297.8K papers, 21.3M citations
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
79.2K papers, 4.7M citations
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
76K papers, 3.7M citations
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
75.2K papers, 4.4M citations
Oregon Health & Science University
65.1K papers, 3.3M citations