Government•Peoria, Illinois, United States•
About: National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research is a government organization based out in Peoria, Illinois, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Starch & Fermentation. The organization has 1037 authors who have published 3438 publications receiving 160899 citations. The organization is also known as: NCAUR.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, a literature review is presented regarding the synthesis, and physicochemical, chemical, and mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid)(PLA), with an orthorhombic unit cell.
Abstract: A literature review is presented regarding the synthesis, and physicochemical, chemical, and mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid)(PLA). Poly(lactic acid) exists as a polymeric helix, with an orthorhombic unit cell. The tensile properties of PLA can vary widely, depending on whether or not it is annealed or oriented or what its degree of crystallinity is. Also discussed are the effects of processing on PLA. Crystallization and crystallization kinetics of PLA are also investigated. Solution and melt rheology of PLA is also discussed. Four different power-law equations and 14 different Mark–Houwink equations are presented for PLA. Nuclear magnetic resonance, UV–VIS, and FTIR spectroscopy of PLA are briefly discussed. Finally, research conducted on starch–PLA composites is introduced.
TL;DR: Divergence in the variable D1/D2 domain of large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA is generally sufficient to resolve individual species, resulting in the prediction that 55 currently recognized taxa are synonyms of earlier described species.
Abstract: Approximately 500 species of ascomycetous yeasts, including members of Candida and other anamorphic genera, were analyzed for extent of divergence in the variable D1/D2 domain of large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA. Divergence in this domain is generally sufficient to resolve individual species, resulting in the prediction that 55 currently recognized taxa are synonyms of earlier described species. Phylogenetic relationships among the ascomycetous yeasts were analyzed from D1/D2 sequence divergence. For comparison, the phylogeny of selected members of the Saccharomyces clade was determined from 18S rDNA sequences. Species relationships were highly concordant between the D1/D2 and 18S trees when branches were statistically well supported.
TL;DR: In this paper, structural features that influence the physical and fuel properties of a fatty ester molecule are chain length, degree of unsaturation, and branching of the chain, as well as the structural features of the fatty acid and the alcohol moieties.
Abstract: Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is an “alternative” diesel fuel that is becoming accepted in a steadily growing number of countries around the world. Since the source of biodiesel varies with the location and other sources such as recycled oils are continuously gaining interest, it is important to possess data on how the various fatty acid profiles of the different sources can influence biodiesel fuel properties. The properties of the various individual fatty esters that comprise biodiesel determine the overall fuel properties of the biodiesel fuel. In turn, the properties of the various fatty esters are determined by the structural features of the fatty acid and the alcohol moieties that comprise a fatty ester. Structural features that influence the physical and fuel properties of a fatty ester molecule are chain length, degree of unsaturation, and branching of the chain. Important fuel properties of biodiesel that are influenced by the fatty acid profile and, in turn, by the structural features of the various fatty esters are cetane number and ultimately exhaust emissions, heat of combustion, cold flow, oxidative stability, viscosity, and lubricity.
TL;DR: The results suggest that the ancestral ITS2 types may have arisen following an ancient interspecific hybridization or gene duplication which occurred prior to the evolutionary radiation of the Gibberella fujikuroi complex and related species of Fusarium.
Abstract: The evolutionary history of the phytopathogenic Gibberella fujikuroi complex of Fusarium and related species was investigated by cladistic analysis of DNA sequences obtained from multiple unlinked loci. Gene phylogenies inferred from the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) rDNA, nuclear 28S rDNA, and beta-tubulin gene were generally concordant, providing strong support for a fully resolved phylogeny of all biological and most morphological species. Discordance of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene tree is due to paralogous or xenologous ITS2 sequences. PCR and sequence analysis demonstrated that every strain of the ingroup species tested possesses two highly divergent nonorthologous ITS2 types designated type I and type II. Only the major ITS2 type, however, is discernable when PCR products are amplified and sequenced directly with conserved primers. The minor ITS2 type was recovered using ITS2 type-specific PCR primers. Distribution of the major ITS2 type within the species lineages exhibits a homoplastic pattern of evolution, thus obscuring true phylogenetic relationships. The results suggest that the ancestral ITS2 types may have arisen following an ancient interspecific hybridization or gene duplication which occurred prior to the evolutionary radiation of the Gibberella fujikuroi complex and related species of Fusarium. The results also indicate that current morphological-based taxonomic schemes for these fungi are unnatural and a new classification is required.
••01 May 2003
TL;DR: In this article, various pre-treatment options as well as enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars are reviewed and the barriers, progress, and prospects of developing an environmentally benign bioprocess for large-scale conversion of hemicellulose to fuel ethanol, xylitol, 2,3-butanediol, and other value added fermentation products are highlighted.
Abstract: Various agricultural residues, such as corn fiber, corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse, contain about 20–40% hemicellulose, the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature. The conversion of hemicellulose to fuels and chemicals is problematic. In this paper, various pretreatment options as well as enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars is reviewed. Our research dealing with the pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of corn fiber and development of novel and improved enzymes such as endo-xylanase, β-xylosidase, and α-l-arabinofuranosidase for hemicellulose bioconversion is described. The barriers, progress, and prospects of developing an environmentally benign bioprocess for large-scale conversion of hemicellulose to fuel ethanol, xylitol, 2,3-butanediol, and other value-added fermentation products are highlighted.
Showing all 1045 results
|Glenn R. Gibson||123||476||71956|
|Lonnie O. Ingram||88||316||22217|
|Largus T. Angenent||66||349||18630|
|Cletus P. Kurtzman||65||248||24720|
|Robert A. Rastall||60||183||15732|
|Ronald D. Plattner||57||154||9259|
|Michael A. Cotta||57||191||12194|
|John F. Leslie||56||165||9810|
|Bruce S. Dien||55||192||11184|
|Shridhar K. Sathe||54||168||9995|
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