About: National Council for Scientific and Technological Development is a government organization based out in Brasília, Brazil. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Monetary policy. The organization has 5050 authors who have published 5488 publications receiving 99862 citations. The organization is also known as: Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa & CNPq.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, a generalized form of entropy was proposed for the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics with the q→1 limit, and the main properties associated with this entropy were established, particularly those corresponding to the microcanonical and canonical ensembles.
Abstract: With the use of a quantity normally scaled in multifractals, a generalized form is postulated for entropy, namelyS q ≡k [1 – ∑ i=1 W p i q ]/(q-1), whereq∈ℝ characterizes the generalization andp i are the probabilities associated withW (microscopic) configurations (W∈ℕ). The main properties associated with this entropy are established, particularly those corresponding to the microcanonical and canonical ensembles. The Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics is recovered as theq→1 limit.
TL;DR: In this paper, a high-intensity electron gun based on field emission from a film of aligned carbon nanotubes has been made, which consists of a nanotube film with a 1-millimeter-diameter grid about 20 micrometers above it.
Abstract: A high-intensity electron gun based on field emission from a film of aligned carbon nanotubes has been made. The gun consists of a nanotube film with a 1-millimeter-diameter grid about 20 micrometers above it. Field-emission current densities of about 0.1 milliampere per square centimeter were observed for applied voltages as low as 200 volts, and current densities greater than 100 milliamperes per square centimeter have been realized at 700 volts. The gun is air-stable, easy and inexpensive to fabricate, and functions stably and reliably for long times (short-term fluctuations are on the order of 10 percent). The entire gun is only about 0.2 millimeter thick and can be produced with virtually no restrictions on its area, from less than 1 square millimeter to hundreds of square centimeters, making it suitable for flat panel display applications.
TL;DR: The findings suggest that mental disorders affect a significant number of children and adolescents worldwide and the pooled prevalence estimates and the identification of sources of heterogeneity have important implications to service, training, and research planning around the world.
Abstract: Background The literature on the prevalence of mental disorders affecting children and adolescents has expanded significantly over the last three decades around the world. Despite the field having matured significantly, there has been no meta-analysis to calculate a worldwide-pooled prevalence and to empirically assess the sources of heterogeneity of estimates. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature searching in PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE for prevalence studies of mental disorders investigating probabilistic community samples of children and adolescents with standardized assessments methods that derive diagnoses according to the DSM or ICD. Meta-analytical techniques were used to estimate the prevalence rates of any mental disorder and individual diagnostic groups. A meta-regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of population and sample characteristics, study methods, assessment procedures, and case definition in determining the heterogeneity of estimates. Results We included 41 studies conducted in 27 countries from every world region. The worldwide-pooled prevalence of mental disorders was 13.4% (CI 95% 11.3–15.9). The worldwide prevalence of any anxiety disorder was 6.5% (CI 95% 4.7–9.1), any depressive disorder was 2.6% (CI 95% 1.7–3.9), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder was 3.4% (CI 95% 2.6–4.5), and any disruptive disorder was 5.7% (CI 95% 4.0–8.1). Significant heterogeneity was detected for all pooled estimates. The multivariate metaregression analyses indicated that sample representativeness, sample frame, and diagnostic interview were significant moderators of prevalence estimates. Estimates did not vary as a function of geographic location of studies and year of data collection. The multivariate model explained 88.89% of prevalence heterogeneity, but residual heterogeneity was still significant. Additional meta-analysis detected significant pooled difference in prevalence rates according to requirement of funcional impairment for the diagnosis of mental disorders. Conclusions Our findings suggest that mental disorders affect a significant number of children and adolescents worldwide. The pooled prevalence estimates and the identification of sources of heterogeneity have important implications to service, training, and research planning around the world.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors review and discuss possible causes for the appearance of local anisotropy (principal stresses unequal) in self-gravitating systems and present its main consequences.
Abstract: We review and discuss possible causes for the appearance of local anisotropy (principal stresses unequal) in self-gravitating systems and present its main consequences. We consider both Newtonian and general relativistic examples. The results emerging from the stability analysis hint at the potential relevance of local anisotropy in the evolution of self-gravitating objects. In this respect particular attention is devoted to the Jeans instability criterion and to the occurrence of cracking in anisotropic spheres. A selection of solutions to Einstein equations for anisotropic matter is analyzed. The specific consequences derived from local anisotropy in these solutions, are exhibited. The differences between two different definitions of energy, within a slowly evolving distribution of anisotropic fluid, are discussed in detail. The conspicuous role played by the Weyl and shear tensors and their relationship with anisotropy of the fluid are brought out.
TL;DR: A method has been developed to produce thin films of aligned carbon nanotubes, which can be aligned either parallel or perpendicular to the surface, as verified by scanning electron microscopy.
Abstract: Carbon nanotube material can now be produced in macroscopic quantities. However, the raw material has a disordered structure, which restricts investigations of both the properties and applications of the nanotubes. A method has been developed to produce thin films of aligned carbon nanotubes. The tubes can be aligned either parallel or perpendicular to the surface, as verified by scanning electron microscopy. The parallel aligned surfaces are birefringent, reflecting differences in the dielectric function along and normal to the tubes. The electrical resistivities are anisotropic as well, being smaller along the tubes than perpendicular to them, because of corresponding differences in the electronic transport properties.
Showing all 5071 results
|Natalie M. Batalha||100||238||39290|
|Bruce Bartholow Duncan||91||346||62782|
|Hans J. Herrmann||87||999||30760|
|Mauro M. Teixeira||86||713||31301|
|Maria Inês Schmidt||86||303||64490|
|Robson A.S. Santos||80||479||22992|
|Osvaldo P. Almeida||78||426||21549|
|Ricardo P. Schiavon||78||264||35875|
|John J. Cowan||71||235||16491|
|Andrew S. Wilson||70||269||14642|
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