Education•Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India•
About: National Institute of Ocean Technology is a education organization based out in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Buoy & Bay. The organization has 642 authors who have published 692 publications receiving 9177 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The result showed that the combination of antibiotics with AgNPs have better antimicrobial effects, and a mechanism was also proposed to explain this phenomenon.
Abstract: The development of a reliable green chemistry process for the biogenic synthesis of nanomaterials is an important aspect of current nanotechnology research. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been known for their inhibitory and bactericidal effect. Resistance to antimicrobial agents by pathogenic bacteria has emerged in recent years and is a major challenge for the health care industry. In the present investigation the use of the fungus Trichoderma viride for the extracellular biosynthesis of AgNPs from silver nitrate solution is reported. It was observed that the aqueous silver (Ag+) ions, when exposed to a filtrate of T. viride, were reduced in solution, thereby leading to formation of extremely stable AgNPs. These AgNPs were characterized by means of several techniques. The nanoparticles show maximum absorbance at 420 nm on ultraviolet-visible spectra. The presence of proteins was identified by Fourier transform–infrared spectroscopy. The reduction of Ag+ ions to elemental silver was characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectrophotometry. Electrokinetic measurements (zeta potential) of AgNPs as a function of pH in 1 × 10−3 mol dm−3 aqueous solution were evaluated. The transmission electron micrograph revealed the formation of polydispersed nanoparticles of 5–40 nm, and the presence of elemental silver was confirmed by energy-dispersed spectroscopy analysis. The nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various antibiotics against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activities of ampicillin, kanamycin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol were increased in the presence of AgNPs against test strains. The highest enhancing effect was observed for ampicillin against test strains. The result showed that the combination of antibiotics with AgNPs have better antimicrobial effects. A mechanism was also proposed to explain this phenomenon. From the Clinical Editor Silver nanoparticles (Ag NP-s) represent an important nanomedicine-based advance in the fight against polyresistent bacteria. In this study, the fungus Trichoderma viride was utilized for extracellular biosynthesis of extremely stable Ag Nps. The antibacterial activities of kanamycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and especially of ampicillin were increased in the presence of Ag NPs against test strains.
TL;DR: In this article, both pretreated and thermally pretreated low and high-density polyethylenes (LDPE and HDPE) and unpretreated starch-blended LDPE were subjected to in vitro biodegradation.
Abstract: Unpretreated and thermally pretreated low- and high-density polyethylenes (LDPE and HDPE) and unpretreated starch-blended LDPE were subjected to in vitro biodegradation. In this study two marine micro-organisms were selected, specifically Bacillus sphericus GC subgroup IV and Bacillus cereus subgroup A, for a duration of 1 year, at pH 7.5 and temperature 30 °C with the polymer as the sole carbon source. FTIR spectrum showed that initially carbonyl index increased, probably due to oxidation by dissolved oxygen (abiotic factor). Prolonged exposure to organisms led to decrease in carbonyl index due to biodegradation (biotic) through Norrish-type mechanism or through the formation of ester. The weight loss of the thermally treated LDPE and HDPE samples were about 19% and 9% respectively, and unpretreated samples were 10% and 3.5% respectively with B. sphericus in 1 year. Weight loss of unpretreated starch-blended LDPE was 25% with B. cereus. Tensile strength of thermally pretreated LDPE and HDPE and unpretreated starch-blended LDPE decreased by 27%, 14.8% and 30.5%, respectively, with B. sphericus and the corresponding decrease in crystallinity was 8%, 2.2% and 8.5%, respectively. Decrease in contact angle indicated that the surfaces turned more hydrophilic after exposure. Surface morphological changes of the biological-treated samples were observed by atomic force microscopy.
TL;DR: The detailed cytotoxicity assay showed a substantial reduction in the viability dependent on dose and exposure of zinc oxide nanoparticles, and FT-IR analyses suggested surface chemical interaction between nanoparticles and algal cells.
Abstract: The increasing industrial use of nanomaterials during the last decades poses a potential threat to the environment and in particular to organisms living in the aquatic environment. In the present study, the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was investigated in Marine algae Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris). High zinc dissociation from ZnONPs, releasing ionic zinc in seawater, is a potential route for zinc assimilation and ZnONPs toxicity. To examine the mechanism of toxicity, C. vulgaris were treated with 50mg/L, 100mg/L, 200mg/L and 300 mg/L ZnO NPs for 24h and 72h. The detailed cytotoxicity assay showed a substantial reduction in the viability dependent on dose and exposure. Further, flow cytometry revealed the significant reduction in C. vulgaris viable cells to higher ZnO NPs. Significant reductions in LDH level were noted for ZnO NPs at 300 mg/L concentration. The activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased in the C. vulgaris exposed to 200mg/L and 300 mg/L ZnO NPs. The content of non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) significantly decreased in the groups with a ZnO NPs concentration of higher than 100mg/L. The level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was found to increase as the ZnO NPs dose increased. The FT-IR analyses suggested surface chemical interaction between nanoparticles and algal cells. The substantial morphological changes and cell wall damage were confirmed through microscopic analyses (FESEM and CM).
TL;DR: In this article, commercial synthetic polymers namely Polycarbonate (PC), Low density polyethylene (LDPE), High density polyylene (HDPE) and Polypropylene (PP) coupons were immersed for a period of 12 months (Feb 2006 - Feb 2007) in Bay of Bengal, East coast, India.
Abstract: Commercial synthetic polymers namely Polycarbonate (PC), Low density polyethylene (LDPE), High density polyethylene (HDPE), and Polypropylene (PP) coupons were immersed for a period of 12 months (Feb 2006 – Feb 2007) in Bay of Bengal, East coast, India. Samples were retrieved every month and the extent of biofouling and biodegradation were monitored. Biofouling was found to depend not only on the season but also on the chemical nature of the polymer. Surface energy of all the four polymers is positively correlated with fouling only at the initial stages (three months) while surface roughness had a negative correlation. The later increased during the study period. Total suspended solids and organic matter were more abundant on HDPE, followed by PP and LDPE, indicating that among polyolefins hydrophobic surfaces (lower surface energy) favor biofouling over one year. Maximum fouling was observed on polycarbonate during initial three months. Chlorophyll a showed a decreasing trend during the study, as secondary foulers such as Balanus amphitrite, were dominant after the monsoon (6th month in the present study). Maximum weight loss was seen in LDPE (1.9%), followed by that in HDPE (1.6%), PC (0.69%) and finally in PP (0.65%) samples in the 12 months time period. FTIR spectra of PC displayed a decrease in carbonate carbonyl index, while an initial increase and a decrease in carbonyl index of polyolefins as a function of time indicated biodegradation.
TL;DR: In this article, buoy data from moored buoys in the Bay of Bengal, along with satellite cloud data, reveal strong monsoon intraseasonal oscillations (ISO) during the summer of 1998.
Abstract: New measurements from moored buoys in the Bay of Bengal, along with satellite cloud data, reveal strong monsoon intraseasonal oscillations (ISO) during the summer of 1998. The active phase of the monsoon is marked by high surface wind and deep atmospheric convection. The buoy data show that sea surface temperature (SST) in the Bay of Bengal warm pool rises and falls with periods of weeks. These intraseasonal oscillations of SST are not adequately captured in a satellite derived weekly SST analysis. They are a direct response to ISO of net surface heat flux into the ocean, which is negative in the active phase of the monsoon and positive in the quiescent phase. Fresh water from rivers and rain appears to control northern Bay of Bengal SST in late summer by allowing sunlight to escape below a shallow mixed layer.
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|Wasiu O. Popoola||31||151||5037|
|Keerikkattil P. Joy||24||106||1801|
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