About: National University of Rwanda is a based out in . It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Health care. The organization has 1970 authors who have published 2504 publications receiving 27033 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: P4P financial performance incentives can improve both the use and quality of maternal and child health services, and could be a useful intervention to accelerate progress towards Millennium Development Goals for maternal andChild health.
Abstract: This brief summarizes the results of a gender impact evaluation study, entitled Effect on maternal and child health services in Rwanda of payment to primary health-care providers for performance : an impact evaluation, conducted during the time period between June 2006 and October 2006, in Rwanda. There was a large and significant increase in the number of institutional deliveries and number of preventative care visits by children. There were no improvements in the number of women who completed prenatal care visits or of children receiving full immunization schedules. There is a significant increase in prenatal quality as measured by compliance with Rwandan prenatal care guidelines. Funding for the study derives from the World Bank-Netherlands Partnership Program, Spanish Impact Evaluation Fund, the British Economic and Social Research Council, Government of Rwanda, Global Development Network.
TL;DR: A series of 100 Rwandese medicinal plants, used by traditional healers to treat infections, were screened for antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties and not less than 27% of the plant species exhibited prominent antiviral Properties against one or more test viruses.
Abstract: A series of 100 Rwandese medicinal plants (267 plant extracts), used by traditional healers to treat infections, were screened for antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. The results of the testing showed that 45% were active against Staphylococcus aureus, 2% against Escherichia coli, 16% against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7% against Candida albicans, 80% against Microsporum canis and 60% against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Not less than 27% of the plant species exhibited prominent antiviral properties against one or more test viruses, more specifically 12% against poliomyelitis, 16% against coxsackie, 3% against Semliki forest, 2% against measles and 8% against herpes simplex virus.
University of Oxford1, University of the Philippines Manila2, Cairo University3, College of Health Sciences, Bahrain4, Al-Azhar University – Gaza5, University of Insubria6, National University of Rwanda7, North Bristol NHS Trust8, Mbarara University of Science and Technology9, Islamic University of Gaza10, National Autonomous University of Mexico11, University of California, San Diego12, National University of Science and Technology13, Oxford Brookes University14, Gulu University15, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board16, University of Huddersfield17, Harvard University18, Mexican Social Security Institute19, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre20, Lancaster University21, University of Alberta22, Southampton General Hospital23
TL;DR: COVID-19 infections and deaths among HCWs follow that of the general population around the world, and the need for universal guidelines for testing and reporting of infections in HCWs is highlighted.
Abstract: Objectives To estimate COVID-19 infections and deaths in healthcare workers (HCWs) from a global perspective during the early phases of the pandemic. Design Systematic review. Methods Two parallel searches of academic bibliographic databases and grey literature were undertaken until 8 May 2020. Governments were also contacted for further information where possible. There were no restrictions on language, information sources used, publication status and types of sources of evidence. The AACODS checklist or the National Institutes of Health study quality assessment tools were used to appraise each source of evidence. Outcome measures Publication characteristics, country-specific data points, COVID-19-specific data, demographics of affected HCWs and public health measures employed. Results A total of 152 888 infections and 1413 deaths were reported. Infections were mainly in women (71.6%, n=14 058) and nurses (38.6%, n=10 706), but deaths were mainly in men (70.8%, n=550) and doctors (51.4%, n=525). Limited data suggested that general practitioners and mental health nurses were the highest risk specialities for deaths. There were 37.2 deaths reported per 100 infections for HCWs aged over 70 years. Europe had the highest absolute numbers of reported infections (119 628) and deaths (712), but the Eastern Mediterranean region had the highest number of reported deaths per 100 infections (5.7). Conclusions COVID-19 infections and deaths among HCWs follow that of the general population around the world. The reasons for gender and specialty differences require further exploration, as do the low rates reported in Africa and India. Although physicians working in certain specialities may be considered high risk due to exposure to oronasal secretions, the risk to other specialities must not be underestimated. Elderly HCWs may require assigning to less risky settings such as telemedicine or administrative positions. Our pragmatic approach provides general trends, and highlights the need for universal guidelines for testing and reporting of infections in HCWs. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020.
TL;DR: This study organizes existing research on the public value of e-government in order to investigate the current state and what value e- government is supposed to yield.
Abstract: This study organizes existing research on the public value of e-government in order to investigate the current state and what value e-government is supposed to yield. The two questions that guided ...
TL;DR: This work estimated population in 195 locations by single year of age and single calendar year from 1950 to 2017 with standardised and replicable methods and used the cohort-component method of population projection, with inputs of fertility, mortality, population, and migration data.
Abstract: Summary Background Population estimates underpin demographic and epidemiological research and are used to track progress on numerous international indicators of health and development. To date, internationally available estimates of population and fertility, although useful, have not been produced with transparent and replicable methods and do not use standardised estimates of mortality. We present single-calendar year and single-year of age estimates of fertility and population by sex with standardised and replicable methods. Methods We estimated population in 195 locations by single year of age and single calendar year from 1950 to 2017 with standardised and replicable methods. We based the estimates on the demographic balancing equation, with inputs of fertility, mortality, population, and migration data. Fertility data came from 7817 location-years of vital registration data, 429 surveys reporting complete birth histories, and 977 surveys and censuses reporting summary birth histories. We estimated age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs; the annual number of livebirths to women of a specified age group per 1000 women in that age group) by use of spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression and used the ASFRs to estimate total fertility rates (TFRs; the average number of children a woman would bear if she survived through the end of the reproductive age span [age 10–54 years] and experienced at each age a particular set of ASFRs observed in the year of interest). Because of sparse data, fertility at ages 10–14 years and 50–54 years was estimated from data on fertility in women aged 15–19 years and 45–49 years, through use of linear regression. Age-specific mortality data came from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 estimates. Data on population came from 1257 censuses and 761 population registry location-years and were adjusted for underenumeration and age misreporting with standard demographic methods. Migration was estimated with the GBD Bayesian demographic balancing model, after incorporating information about refugee migration into the model prior. Final population estimates used the cohort-component method of population projection, with inputs of fertility, mortality, and migration data. Population uncertainty was estimated by use of out-of-sample predictive validity testing. With these data, we estimated the trends in population by age and sex and in fertility by age between 1950 and 2017 in 195 countries and territories. Findings From 1950 to 2017, TFRs decreased by 49·4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 46·4–52·0). The TFR decreased from 4·7 livebirths (4·5–4·9) to 2·4 livebirths (2·2–2·5), and the ASFR of mothers aged 10–19 years decreased from 37 livebirths (34–40) to 22 livebirths (19–24) per 1000 women. Despite reductions in the TFR, the global population has been increasing by an average of 83·8 million people per year since 1985. The global population increased by 197·2% (193·3–200·8) since 1950, from 2·6 billion (2·5–2·6) to 7·6 billion (7·4–7·9) people in 2017; much of this increase was in the proportion of the global population in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The global annual rate of population growth increased between 1950 and 1964, when it peaked at 2·0%; this rate then remained nearly constant until 1970 and then decreased to 1·1% in 2017. Population growth rates in the southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania GBD super-region decreased from 2·5% in 1963 to 0·7% in 2017, whereas in sub-Saharan Africa, population growth rates were almost at the highest reported levels ever in 2017, when they were at 2·7%. The global average age increased from 26·6 years in 1950 to 32·1 years in 2017, and the proportion of the population that is of working age (age 15–64 years) increased from 59·9% to 65·3%. At the national level, the TFR decreased in all countries and territories between 1950 and 2017; in 2017, TFRs ranged from a low of 1·0 livebirths (95% UI 0·9–1·2) in Cyprus to a high of 7·1 livebirths (6·8–7·4) in Niger. The TFR under age 25 years (TFU25; number of livebirths expected by age 25 years for a hypothetical woman who survived the age group and was exposed to current ASFRs) in 2017 ranged from 0·08 livebirths (0·07–0·09) in South Korea to 2·4 livebirths (2·2–2·6) in Niger, and the TFR over age 30 years (TFO30; number of livebirths expected for a hypothetical woman ageing from 30 to 54 years who survived the age group and was exposed to current ASFRs) ranged from a low of 0·3 livebirths (0·3–0·4) in Puerto Rico to a high of 3·1 livebirths (3·0–3·2) in Niger. TFO30 was higher than TFU25 in 145 countries and territories in 2017. 33 countries had a negative population growth rate from 2010 to 2017, most of which were located in central, eastern, and western Europe, whereas population growth rates of more than 2·0% were seen in 33 of 46 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2017, less than 65% of the national population was of working age in 12 of 34 high-income countries, and less than 50% of the national population was of working age in Mali, Chad, and Niger. Interpretation Population trends create demographic dividends and headwinds (ie, economic benefits and detriments) that affect national economies and determine national planning needs. Although TFRs are decreasing, the global population continues to grow as mortality declines, with diverse patterns at the national level and across age groups. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide transparent and replicable estimates of population and fertility, which can be used to inform decision making and to monitor progress. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Showing all 1970 results
|Edward J Mills||102||497||71902|
|Sarah H. Wild||93||392||63253|
|Steven M. Wolinsky||84||223||30588|
|Jean B. Nachega||69||225||45448|
|Mohammed S. Razzaque||39||143||5963|
|Michael S Wilkes||38||143||6404|
|Patrick E. McSharry||35||117||8273|
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