About: Nestlé is a based out in . It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Mass spectrometry. The organization has 8100 authors who have published 8823 publications receiving 309314 citations. The organization is also known as: Nestlé S.A..
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Gallic acid and isoflavones are the most well-absorbed polyphenols, followed by catechins, flavanones, and quercetin glucosides, but with different kinetics, and the least well- absorption polyphenol are the proanthocyanidins, the galloylated tea catech ins, andThe anthocyanins.
Abstract: Polyphenols are abundant micronutrients in our diet, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases is emerging. Bioavailability differs greatly from one polyphenol to another, so that the most abundant polyphenols in our diet are not necessarily those leading to the highest concentrations of active metabolites in target tissues. Mean values for the maximal plasma concentration, the time to reach the maximal plasma concentration, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve, the elimination half-life, and the relative urinary excretion were calculated for 18 major polyphenols. We used data from 97 studies that investigated the kinetics and extent of polyphenol absorption among adults, after ingestion of a single dose of polyphenol provided as pure compound, plant extract, or whole food/beverage. The metabolites present in blood, resulting from digestive and hepatic activity, usually differ from the native compounds. The nature of the known metabolites is described when data are available. The plasma concentrations of total metabolites ranged from 0 to 4 μmol/L with an intake of 50 mg aglycone equivalents, and the relative urinary excretion ranged from 0.3% to 43% of the ingested dose, depending on the polyphenol. Gallic acid and isoflavones are the most well-absorbed polyphenols, followed by catechins, flavanones, and quercetin glucosides, but with different kinetics. The least well-absorbed polyphenols are the proanthocyanidins, the galloylated tea catechins, and the anthocyanins. Data are still too limited for assessment of hydroxycinnamic acids and other polyphenols. These data may be useful for the design and interpretation of intervention studies investigating the health effects of polyphenols.
United States Department of Agriculture1, French Institute of Health and Medical Research2, Research Triangle Park3, Boston University4, Saint Louis University5, University of Pittsburgh6, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg7, Nestlé8, Uppsala University9, Merck & Co.10, Sapienza University of Rome11, National Institutes of Health12, Novartis13, University of Verona14
TL;DR: Sarcopenia should be considered in all older patients who present with observed declines in physical function, strength, or overall health, and patients who meet these criteria should further undergo body composition assessment using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry with sarcopenia being defined using currently validated definitions.
Abstract: Sarcopenia, the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, has considerable societal consequences for the development of frailty, disability, and health care planning A group of geriatricians and scientists from academia and industry met in Rome, Italy, on November 18, 2009, to arrive at a consensus definition of sarcopenia The current consensus definition was approved unanimously by the meeting participants and is as follows: Sarcopenia is defined as the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function The causes of sarcopenia are multifactorial and can include disuse, altered endocrine function, chronic diseases, inflammation, insulin resistance, and nutritional deficiencies Although cachexia may be a component of sarcopenia, the 2 conditions are not the same The diagnosis of sarcopenia should be considered in all older patients who present with observed declines in physical function, strength, or overall health Sarcopenia should specifically be considered in patients who are bedridden, cannot independently rise from a chair, or who have a measured gait speed less that 1 m/s –1 Patients who meet these criteria should further undergo body composition assessment using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry with sarcopenia being defined using currently validated definitions A diagnosis of sarcopenia is consistent with a gait speed of less than 1 m·s −1 and an objectively measured low muscle mass (eg, appendicular mass relative to ht 2 that is ≤ 723 kg/m 2 in men and ≤ 567 kg/m 2 in women) Sarcopenia is a highly prevalent condition in older persons that leads to disability, hospitalization, and death
TL;DR: The results show that dietary fermentable fiber and SCFAs can shape the immunological environment in the lung and influence the severity of allergic inflammation.
Abstract: Metabolites from intestinal microbiota are key determinants of host-microbe mutualism and, consequently, the health or disease of the intestinal tract. However, whether such host-microbe crosstalk influences inflammation in peripheral tissues, such as the lung, is poorly understood. We found that dietary fermentable fiber content changed the composition of the gut and lung microbiota, in particular by altering the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes. The gut microbiota metabolized the fiber, consequently increasing the concentration of circulating short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Mice fed a high-fiber diet had increased circulating levels of SCFAs and were protected against allergic inflammation in the lung, whereas a low-fiber diet decreased levels of SCFAs and increased allergic airway disease. Treatment of mice with the SCFA propionate led to alterations in bone marrow hematopoiesis that were characterized by enhanced generation of macrophage and dendritic cell (DC) precursors and subsequent seeding of the lungs by DCs with high phagocytic capacity but an impaired ability to promote T helper type 2 (TH2) cell effector function. The effects of propionate on allergic inflammation were dependent on G protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41, also called free fatty acid receptor 3 or FFAR3), but not GPR43 (also called free fatty acid receptor 2 or FFAR2). Our results show that dietary fermentable fiber and SCFAs can shape the immunological environment in the lung and influence the severity of allergic inflammation.
TL;DR: The Mini Nutritional Assessment has recently been designed and validated to provide a single, rapid assessment of nutritional status in elderly patients in outpatient clinics, hospitals, and nursing homes and was found to be predictive of mortality and hospital cost.
Abstract: The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) has recently been designed and validated to provide a single, rapid assessment of nutritional status in elderly patients in outpatient clinics, hospitals, and nursing homes. It has been translated into several languages and validated in many clinics around the world. The MNA test is composed of simple measurements and brief questions that can be completed in about 10 min. Discriminant analysis was used to compare the findings of the MNA with the nutritional status determined by physicians, using the standard extensive nutritional assessment including complete anthropometric, clinical biochemistry, and dietary parameters. The sum of the MNA score distinguishes between elderly patients with: 1) adequate nutritional status, MNA > or = 24; 2) protein-calorie malnutrition, MNA < 17; 3) at risk of malnutrition, MNA between 17 and 23.5. With this scoring, sensitivity was found to be 96%, specificity 98%, and predictive value 97%. The MNA scale was also found to be predictive of mortality and hospital cost. Most important it is possible to identify people at risk for malnutrition, scores between 17 and 23.5, before severe changes in weight or albumin levels occur. These individuals are more likely to have a decrease in caloric intake that can be easily corrected by nutritional intervention.
TL;DR: The current review presents the available genomics and biological data on prophages from bacterial pathogens in an evolutionary framework to demonstrate that the chromosomes from bacteria and their viruses (bacteriophages) are coevolving.
Abstract: Comparative genomics demonstrated that the chromosomes from bacteria and their viruses (bacteriophages) are coevolving. This process is most evident for bacterial pathogens where the majority contain prophages or phage remnants integrated into the bacterial DNA. Many prophages from bacterial pathogens encode virulence factors. Two situations can be distinguished: Vibrio cholerae, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and Clostridium botulinum depend on a specific prophage-encoded toxin for causing a specific disease, whereas Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium harbor a multitude of prophages and each phage-encoded virulence or fitness factor makes an incremental contribution to the fitness of the lysogen. These prophages behave like “swarms” of related prophages. Prophage diversification seems to be fueled by the frequent transfer of phage material by recombination with superinfecting phages, resident prophages, or occasional acquisition of other mobile DNA elements or bacterial chromosomal genes. Prophages also contribute to the diversification of the bacterial genome architecture. In many cases, they actually represent a large fraction of the strain-specific DNA sequences. In addition, they can serve as anchoring points for genome inversions. The current review presents the available genomics and biological data on prophages from bacterial pathogens in an evolutionary framework.
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|Jeremy K. Nicholson||141||773||80275|
|Carl L. Keen||93||632||33114|
|Steven R. Tannenbaum||87||449||39074|
|Lawrence E. Samelson||87||209||27398|
|J. Bruce German||83||321||23370|
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|Jimmy K. Eng||77||168||35701|
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