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Institution

Ohio University

EducationLancaster, Ohio, United States
About: Ohio University is a education organization based out in Lancaster, Ohio, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Corrosion. The organization has 13187 authors who have published 25984 publications receiving 662281 citations. The organization is also known as: OU.
Topics: Population, Corrosion, Poison control, Neutron, Galaxy


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
Daniel J. Klionsky1, Kotb Abdelmohsen2, Akihisa Abe3, Joynal Abedin4  +2519 moreInstitutions (695)
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.

5,187 citations

Book
01 Jan 1969
TL;DR: A review of the book "Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources, by Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchard" is given in this article.
Abstract: The article presents a review of the book “Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources,” by Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchard.

4,190 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results of the meta-analysis indicate that the overall relation of therapeutic alliance with outcome is moderate, but consistent, regardless of many of the variables that have been posited to influence this relationship.
Abstract: To identify underlying patterns in the alliance literature, an empirical review of the many existing studies that relate alliance to outcome was conducted. After an exhaustive literature review, the data from 79 studies (58 published, 21 unpublished) were aggregated using meta-analytic procedures. The results of the meta-analysis indicate that the overall relation of therapeutic alliance with outcome is moderate, but consistent, regardless of many of the variables that have been posited to influence this relationship. For patient, therapist, and observer ratings, the various alliance scales have adequate reliability. Across most alliance scales, there seems to be no difference in the ability of raters to predict outcome. Moreover, the relation of alliance and outcome does not appear to be influenced by other moderator variables, such as the type of outcome measure used in the study, the type of outcome rater, the time of alliance assessment, the type of alliance rater, the type of treatment provided, or the publication status of the study.

3,127 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Jeffrey D. Stanaway1, Ashkan Afshin1, Emmanuela Gakidou1, Stephen S Lim1  +1050 moreInstitutions (346)
TL;DR: This study estimated levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or groups of risks from 1990 to 2017 and explored the relationship between development and risk exposure.

2,910 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2004
TL;DR: A study in a U.S. midwestern insurance company explored the determinants and mediating effects of three psychological conditions (meaningfulness, safety and availability) on employees' engagement in their work as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Building on Kahn’ s (1990) ethnographic work, a e eld study in a U.S. Midwestern insurance company explored the determinants and mediating effects of three psychological conditions ‐ meaningfulness, safety and availability ‐ on employees’ engagement in their work. Results from the revised theoretical framework revealed that all three psychological conditions exhibited signie cant positive relations with engagement. Meaningfulness displayed the strongest relation. Job enrichment and work role e t were positively linked to psychological meaningfulness. Rewarding co-worker and supportive supervisor relations were positively associated with psychological safety, whereas adherence to co-worker norms and self-consciousness were negatively associated. Psychological availability was positively related to resources available and negatively related to participation in outside activities. Finally, the relations of job enrichment and work role e t with engagement were both fully mediated by the psychological condition of meaningfulness. The association between adherence to co-worker norms and engagement was partially mediated by psychological safety. Theoretical and practical implications related to psychological engagement at work are discussed. To explore the challenge to the human soul in organizations is to build a bridge between the world of the personal, subjective, and even unconscious elements of individual experience and the world of organizations that demand rationality, efficiency, and personal sacrifice . . . we must be willing to shift our viewpoint back and forth between what organizations want of people and what constitutes human complexity: the contradictory nature of human needs, desires, and experience. (Briskin, 1998, p. xii.) This quote from Briskin (1998), an organizational consultant, reflects the challenges that managers and researchers of organizations face as they seek to understand and

2,866 citations


Authors

Showing all 13259 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Carlo M. Croce1981135189007
Gang Chen1673372149819
Jongmin Lee1502257134772
Jian Li133286387131
George M. Shaw12236560727
Ashley I. Bush11656057009
Bharat Bhushan116127662506
J. J. Beatty11168455743
Ryan Chornock10938748531
Frank E. Harrell10739666391
Leonard H. Epstein10657540114
Peter M. Garnavich10548375471
Francis J. Keefe10350841625
Jordi Miralda-Escudé9428542835
Antonio J. Conejo8933927947
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202338
2022125
2021899
2020971
2019950
20181,006