Oregon State University
Education•Corvallis, Oregon, United States•
About: Oregon State University is a(n) education organization based out in Corvallis, Oregon, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Climate change. The organization has 28192 authors who have published 64044 publication(s) receiving 2634108 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Oregon Agricultural College & OSU.
Topics: Population, Climate change, Gene, Upwelling, Soil water
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Dec 1996-ACM Computing Surveys
TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.
Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).
TL;DR: Human alteration of Earth is substantial and growing as discussed by the authors, between one-third and one-half of the land surface has been transformed by human action; the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has increased by nearly 30 percent since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution; more atmospheric nitrogen is fixed by humanity than by all natural terrestrial sources combined; more than half of all accessible surface fresh water is put to use by humanity; and about one-quarter of the bird species on Earth have been driven to extinction.
Abstract: Human alteration of Earth is substantial and growing. Between one-third and one-half of the land surface has been transformed by human action; the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has increased by nearly 30 percent since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution; more atmospheric nitrogen is fixed by humanity than by all natural terrestrial sources combined; more than half of all accessible surface fresh water is put to use by humanity; and about one-quarter of the bird species on Earth have been driven to extinction. By these and other standards, it is clear that we live on a human-dominated planet.
•30 Jun 1972
TL;DR: An overview of Chemical Reaction Engineering is presented, followed by an introduction to Reactor Design, and a discussion of the Dispersion Model.
Abstract: Partial table of contents: Overview of Chemical Reaction Engineering. HOMOGENEOUS REACTIONS IN IDEAL REACTORS. Introduction to Reactor Design. Design for Single Reactions. Design for Parallel Reactions. Potpourri of Multiple Reactions. NON IDEAL FLOW. Compartment Models. The Dispersion Model. The Tank--in--Series Model. REACTIONS CATALYZED BY SOLIDS. Solid Catalyzed Reactions. The Packed Bed Catalytic Reactor. Deactivating Catalysts. HETEROGENEOUS REACTIONS. Fluid--Fluid Reactions: Kinetics. Fluid--Particle Reactions: Design. BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS. Enzyme Fermentation. Substrate Limiting Microbial Fermentation. Product Limiting Microbial Fermentation. Appendix. Index.
TL;DR: The key decisions in evaluating collaborative filtering recommender systems are reviewed: the user tasks being evaluated, the types of analysis and datasets being used, the ways in which prediction quality is measured, the evaluation of prediction attributes other than quality, and the user-based evaluation of the system as a whole.
Abstract: Recommender systems have been evaluated in many, often incomparable, ways. In this article, we review the key decisions in evaluating collaborative filtering recommender systems: the user tasks being evaluated, the types of analysis and datasets being used, the ways in which prediction quality is measured, the evaluation of prediction attributes other than quality, and the user-based evaluation of the system as a whole. In addition to reviewing the evaluation strategies used by prior researchers, we present empirical results from the analysis of various accuracy metrics on one content domain where all the tested metrics collapsed roughly into three equivalence classes. Metrics within each equivalency class were strongly correlated, while metrics from different equivalency classes were uncorrelated.
01 Sep 2013-Nature Biotechnology
TL;DR: The results demonstrate that phylogeny and function are sufficiently linked that this 'predictive metagenomic' approach should provide useful insights into the thousands of uncultivated microbial communities for which only marker gene surveys are currently available.
Abstract: Profiling phylogenetic marker genes, such as the 16S rRNA gene, is a key tool for studies of microbial communities but does not provide direct evidence of a community's functional capabilities. Here we describe PICRUSt (phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states), a computational approach to predict the functional composition of a metagenome using marker gene data and a database of reference genomes. PICRUSt uses an extended ancestral-state reconstruction algorithm to predict which gene families are present and then combines gene families to estimate the composite metagenome. Using 16S information, PICRUSt recaptures key findings from the Human Microbiome Project and accurately predicts the abundance of gene families in host-associated and environmental communities, with quantifiable uncertainty. Our results demonstrate that phylogeny and function are sufficiently linked that this 'predictive metagenomic' approach should provide useful insights into the thousands of uncultivated microbial communities for which only marker gene surveys are currently available.
Showing all 28192 results
|Thomas J. Smith||140||1775||113919|
|Harold A. Mooney||135||450||100404|
|Jerry M. Melillo||134||383||68894|
|John F. Thompson||132||1420||95894|
|Thomas N. Williams||132||1145||95109|
|Peter M. Vitousek||127||352||96184|
|Steven W. Running||126||355||76265|
|Vincenzo Di Marzo||126||659||60240|
|J. D. Hansen||122||975||76198|
|Michael R. Hoffmann||109||500||63474|
|David J. Hill||107||1364||57746|
Related Institutions (5)
University of California, Davis
180K papers, 8M citations
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
225.1K papers, 10.1M citations
Pennsylvania State University
196.8K papers, 8.3M citations
University of Florida
200K papers, 7.1M citations
University of Maryland, College Park
155.9K papers, 7.2M citations