About: Osaka City University is a education organization based out in Osaka, Japan. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Polymerization & Population. The organization has 16435 authors who have published 33181 publications receiving 727087 citations. The organization is also known as: Ōsaka shiritsu daigaku.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The data suggest that both intramembranous and endochondral ossification were completely blocked, owing to the maturational arrest of osteoblasts in the mutant mice, and demonstrate that Cbfa1 plays an essential role in osteogenesis.
Abstract: A transcription factor, Cbfa1, which belongs to the runt-domain gene family, is expressed restrictively in fetal development. To elucidate the function of Cbfa1, we generated mice with a mutated Cbfa1 locus. Mice with a homozygous mutation in Cbfa1 died just after birth without breathing. Examination of their skeletal systems showed a complete lack of ossification. Although immature osteoblasts, which expressed alkaline phophatase weakly but not Osteopontin and Osteocalcin, and a few immature osteoclasts appeared at the perichondrial region, neither vascular nor mesenchymal cell invasion was observed in the cartilage. Therefore, our data suggest that both intramembranous and endochondral ossification were completely blocked, owing to the maturational arrest of osteoblasts in the mutant mice, and demonstrate that Cbfa1 plays an essential role in osteogenesis.
TL;DR: In this article, an open label, phase 3 study (WJTOG3405) with recruitment between March 31, 2006, and June 22, 2009, at 36 centers in Japan was conducted.
Abstract: Summary Background Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer harbouring mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) gene respond well to the EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. However, whether gefitinib is better than standard platinum doublet chemotherapy in patients selected by EGFR mutation is uncertain. Methods We did an open label, phase 3 study (WJTOG3405) with recruitment between March 31, 2006, and June 22, 2009, at 36 centres in Japan. 177 chemotherapy-naive patients aged 75 years or younger and diagnosed with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer or postoperative recurrence harbouring EGFR mutations (either the exon 19 deletion or L858R point mutation) were randomly assigned, using a minimisation technique, to receive either gefitinib (250 mg/day orally; n=88) or cisplatin (80 mg/m 2 , intravenously) plus docetaxel (60 mg/m 2 , intravenously; n=89), administered every 21 days for three to six cycles. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Survival analysis was done with the modified intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with UMIN (University Hospital Medical Information Network in Japan), number 000000539. Findings Five patients were excluded (two patients were found to have thyroid and colon cancer after randomisation, one patient had an exon 18 mutation, one patient had insufficient consent, and one patient showed acute allergic reaction to docetaxel). Thus, 172 patients (86 in each group) were included in the survival analyses. The gefitinib group had significantly longer progression-free survival compared with the cisplatin plus docetaxel goup, with a median progression-free survival time of 9·2 months (95% CI 8·0–13·9) versus 6·3 months (5·8–7·8; HR 0·489, 95% CI 0·336–0·710, log-rank p Interpretation Patients with lung cancer who are selected by EGFR mutations have longer progression-free survival if they are treated with gefitinib than if they are treated with cisplatin plus docetaxel. Funding West Japan Oncology Group (WJOG): a non-profit organisation supported by unrestricted donations from several pharmaceutical companies.
TL;DR: The crystal structure of photosystem II is reported, finding that five oxygen atoms served as oxo bridges linking the five metal atoms, and that four water molecules were bound to the Mn4CaO5 cluster; some of them may therefore serve as substrates for dioxygen formation.
Abstract: Photosystem II is the site of photosynthetic water oxidation and contains 20 subunits with a total molecular mass of 350 kDa. The structure of photosystem II has been reported at resolutions from 3.8 to 2.9 angstrom. These resolutions have provided much information on the arrangement of protein subunits and cofactors but are insufficient to reveal the detailed structure of the catalytic centre of water splitting. Here we report the crystal structure of photosystem II at a resolution of 1.9 angstrom. From our electron density map, we located all of the metal atoms of the Mn(4)CaO(5) cluster, together with all of their ligands. We found that five oxygen atoms served as oxo bridges linking the five metal atoms, and that four water molecules were bound to the Mn(4)CaO(5) cluster; some of them may therefore serve as substrates for dioxygen formation. We identified more than 1,300 water molecules in each photosystem II monomer. Some of them formed extensive hydrogen-bonding networks that may serve as channels for protons, water or oxygen molecules. The determination of the high-resolution structure of photosystem II will allow us to analyse and understand its functions in great detail.
TL;DR: Nanog is a critical factor underlying pluripotency in both ICM and ES cells, and it is found that one of them, encoding the homeoprotein Nanog, was capable of maintaining ES cell self-renewal independently of LIF/Stat3.
Abstract: Embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocysts grow infinitely while maintaining pluripotency. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) can maintain self-renewal of mouse ES cells through activation of Stat3. However, LIF/Stat3 is dispensable for maintenance of ICM and human ES cells, suggesting that the pathway is not fundamental for pluripotency. In search of a critical factor(s) that underlies pluripotency in both ICM and ES cells, we performed in silico differential display and identified several genes specifically expressed in mouse ES cells and preimplantation embryos. We found that one of them, encoding the homeoprotein Nanog, was capable of maintaining ES cell self-renewal independently of LIF/Stat3. nanog-deficient ICM failed to generate epiblast and only produced parietal endoderm-like cells. nanog-deficient ES cells lost pluripotency and differentiated into extraembryonic endoderm lineage. These data demonstrate that Nanog is a critical factor underlying pluripotency in both ICM and ES cells.
TL;DR: A critical reassessment of the quality and the robustness of these models across tropical forest types, using a large dataset of 2,410 trees ≥ 5 cm diameter, directly harvested in 27 study sites across the tropics, is provided.
Abstract: Tropical forests hold large stores of carbon, yet uncertainty remains regarding their quantitative contri- bution to the global carbon cycle. One approach to quantifying carbon biomass stores consists in inferring changes from long-term forest inventory plots. Regres- sion models are used to convert inventory data into an estimate of aboveground biomass (AGB). We provide a critical reassessment of the quality and the robustness of these models across tropical forest types, using a large dataset of 2,410 trees ‡ 5 cm diameter, directly harvested in 27 study sites across the tropics. Proportional rela- tionships between aboveground biomass and the prod- uct of wood density, trunk cross-sectional area, and total height are constructed. We also develop a regres- sion model involving wood density and stem diameter only. Our models were tested for secondary and old- growth forests, for dry, moist and wet forests, for low- land and montane forests, and for mangrove forests. The most important predictors of AGB of a tree were, in decreasing order of importance, its trunk diameter, wood specific gravity, total height, and forest type (dry, moist, or wet). Overestimates prevailed, giving a bias of 0.5-6.5% when errors were averaged across all stands. Our regression models can be used reliably to predict aboveground tree biomass across a broad range of tropical forests. Because they are based on an unprece- dented dataset, these models should improve the quality
Showing all 16468 results
|Robert M Harris||137||1471||97523|
|Victor J. Dzau||130||688||66047|
Related Institutions (5)