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Institution

Oxford Brookes University

EducationOxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom
About: Oxford Brookes University is a education organization based out in Oxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Tourism. The organization has 3797 authors who have published 10698 publications receiving 325471 citations. The organization is also known as: Oxford Polytechnic & Oxford School of Art.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
Clotilde Théry1, Kenneth W. Witwer2, Elena Aikawa3, María José Alcaraz4  +414 moreInstitutions (209)
TL;DR: The MISEV2018 guidelines include tables and outlines of suggested protocols and steps to follow to document specific EV-associated functional activities, and a checklist is provided with summaries of key points.
Abstract: The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the number of scientific publications describing physiological and pathological functions of extracellular vesicles (EVs), a collective term covering various subtypes of cell-released, membranous structures, called exosomes, microvesicles, microparticles, ectosomes, oncosomes, apoptotic bodies, and many other names. However, specific issues arise when working with these entities, whose size and amount often make them difficult to obtain as relatively pure preparations, and to characterize properly. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) proposed Minimal Information for Studies of Extracellular Vesicles (“MISEV”) guidelines for the field in 2014. We now update these “MISEV2014” guidelines based on evolution of the collective knowledge in the last four years. An important point to consider is that ascribing a specific function to EVs in general, or to subtypes of EVs, requires reporting of specific information beyond mere description of function in a crude, potentially contaminated, and heterogeneous preparation. For example, claims that exosomes are endowed with exquisite and specific activities remain difficult to support experimentally, given our still limited knowledge of their specific molecular machineries of biogenesis and release, as compared with other biophysically similar EVs. The MISEV2018 guidelines include tables and outlines of suggested protocols and steps to follow to document specific EV-associated functional activities. Finally, a checklist is provided with summaries of key points.

5,988 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a sample of PhD studies using qualitative approaches, and qualitative interviews as the method of data collection was taken from theses.com and contents analysed for their sample sizes.
Abstract: A number of issues can affect sample size in qualitative research; however, the guiding principle should be the concept of saturation. This has been explored in detail by a number of authors but is still hotly debated, and some say little understood. A sample of PhD studies using qualitative approaches, and qualitative interviews as the method of data collection was taken from theses.com and contents analysed for their sample sizes. Five hundred and sixty studies were identified that fitted the inclusion criteria. Results showed that the mean sample size was 31; however, the distribution was non-random, with a statistically significant proportion of studies, presenting sample sizes that were multiples of ten. These results are discussed in relation to saturation. They suggest a pre-meditated approach that is not wholly congruent with the principles of qualitative research.

3,262 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This comprehensive review summarizes current knowledge of EV uptake mechanisms and seems likely that a heterogeneous population of EVs may gain entry into a cell via more than one route.
Abstract: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small vesicles released by donor cells that can be taken up by recipient cells. Despite their discovery decades ago, it has only recently become apparent that EVs play an important role in cell-to-cell communication. EVs can carry a range of nucleic acids and proteins which can have a significant impact on the phenotype of the recipient. For this phenotypic effect to occur, EVs need to fuse with target cell membranes, either directly with the plasma membrane or with the endosomal membrane after endocytic uptake. EVs are of therapeutic interest because they are deregulated in diseases such as cancer and they could be harnessed to deliver drugs to target cells. It is therefore important to understand the molecular mechanisms by which EVs are taken up into cells. This comprehensive review summarizes current knowledge of EV uptake mechanisms. Cells appear to take up EVs by a variety of endocytic pathways, including clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and clathrin-independent pathways such as caveolin-mediated uptake, macropinocytosis, phagocytosis, and lipid raft–mediated internalization. Indeed, it seems likely that a heterogeneous population of EVs may gain entry into a cell via more than one route. The uptake mechanism used by a given EV may depend on proteins and glycoproteins found on the surface of both the vesicle and the target cell. Further research is needed to understand the precise rules that underpin EV entry into cells. Keywords: extracellular vesicles; EV uptake; EV internalization; cell–EV interaction; endocytosis; cell communication; exosomes (Published: 4 August 2014) Citation: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles 2014, 3 : 24641 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/jev.v3.24641

1,809 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
06 Nov 2011
TL;DR: This paper presents a framework for adaptive visual object tracking based on structured output prediction that is able to avoid the need for an intermediate classification step, and uses a kernelized structured output support vector machine (SVM), which is learned online to provide adaptive tracking.
Abstract: Adaptive tracking-by-detection methods are widely used in computer vision for tracking arbitrary objects. Current approaches treat the tracking problem as a classification task and use online learning techniques to update the object model. However, for these updates to happen one needs to convert the estimated object position into a set of labelled training examples, and it is not clear how best to perform this intermediate step. Furthermore, the objective for the classifier (label prediction) is not explicitly coupled to the objective for the tracker (accurate estimation of object position). In this paper, we present a framework for adaptive visual object tracking based on structured output prediction. By explicitly allowing the output space to express the needs of the tracker, we are able to avoid the need for an intermediate classification step. Our method uses a kernelized structured output support vector machine (SVM), which is learned online to provide adaptive tracking. To allow for real-time application, we introduce a budgeting mechanism which prevents the unbounded growth in the number of support vectors which would otherwise occur during tracking. Experimentally, we show that our algorithm is able to outperform state-of-the-art trackers on various benchmark videos. Additionally, we show that we can easily incorporate additional features and kernels into our framework, which results in increased performance.

1,719 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The origin and development of the adaptive approach to thermal comfort is explained, and recommendations made as to the best comfort temperature, the range of comfortable environments and the maximum rate of change of indoor temperature.

1,564 citations


Authors

Showing all 3908 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Paul Jackson141137293464
David Price138168793535
David A. Jackson136109568352
Luc Van Gool1331307107743
Angela Vincent11684352784
Philip H. S. Torr11157355731
David Smith10099442271
Pushmeet Kohli9441936517
Derrick W. Crook9247429885
Derick T Wade9039837413
Paul Burton8541842766
Philippa T. K. Saunders7828018860
Klaus P. Ebmeier7737521018
Tipu Z. Aziz7746420977
Murray D. Mitchell7454020408
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202356
2022140
2021705
2020706
2019677
2018638