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Institution

Pedagogical University

EducationMaputo, Mozambique
About: Pedagogical University is a education organization based out in Maputo, Mozambique. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Dielectric. The organization has 15568 authors who have published 19163 publications receiving 154105 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A series of improvements to the spectroscopic reductions are described, including better flat fielding and improved wavelength calibration at the blue end, better processing of objects with extremely strong narrow emission lines, and an improved determination of stellar metallicities.
Abstract: This paper describes the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), marking the completion of the original goals of the SDSS and the end of the phase known as SDSS-II. It includes 11,663 deg^2 of imaging data, with most of the ~2000 deg^2 increment over the previous data release lying in regions of low Galactic latitude. The catalog contains five-band photometry for 357 million distinct objects. The survey also includes repeat photometry on a 120° long, 2°.5 wide stripe along the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap, with some regions covered by as many as 90 individual imaging runs. We include a co-addition of the best of these data, going roughly 2 mag fainter than the main survey over 250 deg^2. The survey has completed spectroscopy over 9380 deg^2; the spectroscopy is now complete over a large contiguous area of the Northern Galactic Cap, closing the gap that was present in previous data releases. There are over 1.6 million spectra in total, including 930,000 galaxies, 120,000 quasars, and 460,000 stars. The data release includes improved stellar photometry at low Galactic latitude. The astrometry has all been recalibrated with the second version of the USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog, reducing the rms statistical errors at the bright end to 45 milliarcseconds per coordinate. We further quantify a systematic error in bright galaxy photometry due to poor sky determination; this problem is less severe than previously reported for the majority of galaxies. Finally, we describe a series of improvements to the spectroscopic reductions, including better flat fielding and improved wavelength calibration at the blue end, better processing of objects with extremely strong narrow emission lines, and an improved determination of stellar metallicities.

5,665 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This revision of the classification of unicellular eukaryotes updates that of Levine et al. (1980) for the protozoa and expands it to include other protists, and proposes a scheme that is based on nameless ranked systematics.
Abstract: This revision of the classification of unicellular eukaryotes updates that of Levine et al. (1980) for the protozoa and expands it to include other protists. Whereas the previous revision was primarily to incorporate the results of ultrastructural studies, this revision incorporates results from both ultrastructural research since 1980 and molecular phylogenetic studies. We propose a scheme that is based on nameless ranked systematics. The vocabulary of the taxonomy is updated, particularly to clarify the naming of groups that have been repositioned. We recognize six clusters of eukaryotes that may represent the basic groupings similar to traditional ''kingdoms.'' The multicellular lineages emerged from within monophyletic protist lineages: animals and fungi from Opisthokonta, plants from Archaeplastida, and brown algae from Stramenopiles.

1,620 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Jennifer K. Adelman-McCarthy1, Marcel A. Agüeros2, S. Allam1, S. Allam3  +170 moreInstitutions (65)
TL;DR: The Sixth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDS) as discussed by the authors contains images and parameters of roughly 287 million objects over 9583 deg(2), including scans over a large range of Galactic latitudes and longitudes.
Abstract: This paper describes the Sixth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. With this data release, the imaging of the northern Galactic cap is now complete. The survey contains images and parameters of roughly 287 million objects over 9583 deg(2), including scans over a large range of Galactic latitudes and longitudes. The survey also includes 1.27 million spectra of stars, galaxies, quasars, and blank sky ( for sky subtraction) selected over 7425 deg2. This release includes much more stellar spectroscopy than was available in previous data releases and also includes detailed estimates of stellar temperatures, gravities, and metallicities. The results of improved photometric calibration are now available, with uncertainties of roughly 1% in g, r, i, and z, and 2% in u, substantially better than the uncertainties in previous data releases. The spectra in this data release have improved wavelength and flux calibration, especially in the extreme blue and extreme red, leading to the qualitatively better determination of stellar types and radial velocities. The spectrophotometric fluxes are now tied to point-spread function magnitudes of stars rather than fiber magnitudes. This gives more robust results in the presence of seeing variations, but also implies a change in the spectrophotometric scale, which is now brighter by roughly 0.35 mag. Systematic errors in the velocity dispersions of galaxies have been fixed, and the results of two independent codes for determining spectral classifications and red-shifts are made available. Additional spectral outputs are made available, including calibrated spectra from individual 15 minute exposures and the sky spectrum subtracted from each exposure. We also quantify a recently recognized underestimation of the brightnesses of galaxies of large angular extent due to poor sky subtraction; the bias can exceed 0.2 mag for galaxies brighter than r = 14 mag.

1,602 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used the photometric parallax method to estimate the distances to ~48 million stars detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and map their three-dimensional number density distribution in the Galaxy.
Abstract: Using the photometric parallax method we estimate the distances to ~48 million stars detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and map their three-dimensional number density distribution in the Galaxy. The currently available data sample the distance range from 100 pc to 20 kpc and cover 6500 deg2 of sky, mostly at high Galactic latitudes (|b| > 25). These stellar number density maps allow an investigation of the Galactic structure with no a priori assumptions about the functional form of its components. The data show strong evidence for a Galaxy consisting of an oblate halo, a disk component, and a number of localized overdensities. The number density distribution of stars as traced by M dwarfs in the solar neighborhood (D < 2 kpc) is well fit by two exponential disks (the thin and thick disk) with scale heights and lengths, bias corrected for an assumed 35% binary fraction, of H1 = 300 pc and L1 = 2600 pc, and H2 = 900 pc and L2 = 3600 pc, and local thick-to-thin disk density normalization ρthick(R☉)/ρthin(R☉) = 12% . We use the stars near main-sequence turnoff to measure the shape of the Galactic halo. We find a strong preference for oblate halo models, with best-fit axis ratio c/a = 0.64, ρH ∝ r−2.8 power-law profile, and the local halo-to-thin disk normalization of 0.5%. Based on a series of Monte Carlo simulations, we estimate the errors of derived model parameters not to be larger than ~20% for the disk scales and ~10% for the density normalization, with largest contributions to error coming from the uncertainty in calibration of the photometric parallax relation and poorly constrained binary fraction. While generally consistent with the above model, the measured density distribution shows a number of statistically significant localized deviations. In addition to known features, such as the Monoceros stream, we detect two overdensities in the thick disk region at cylindrical galactocentric radii and heights (R,Z) ~ (6.5,1.5) kpc and (R,Z) ~ (9.5,0.8) kpc and a remarkable density enhancement in the halo covering over 1000 deg2 of sky toward the constellation of Virgo, at distances of ~6-20 kpc. Compared to counts in a region symmetric with respect to the l = 0° line and with the same Galactic latitude, the Virgo overdensity is responsible for a factor of 2 number density excess and may be a nearby tidal stream or a low-surface brightness dwarf galaxy merging with the Milky Way. The u − g color distribution of stars associated with it implies metallicity lower than that of thick disk stars and consistent with the halo metallicity distribution. After removal of the resolved overdensities, the remaining data are consistent with a smooth density distribution; we detect no evidence of further unresolved clumpy substructure at scales ranging from ~50 pc in the disk to ~1-2 kpc in the halo.

1,375 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Jennifer K. Adelman-McCarthy1, Marcel A. Agüeros2, S. Allam1, S. Allam3  +149 moreInstitutions (47)
TL;DR: The fourth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) as discussed by the authors includes all survey-quality data taken through 2004 June, including five-band photometric data for 180 million objects selected over 6670 deg2 and 673,280 spectra of galaxies, quasars and stars selected from 4783 deg2 of those imaging data using the standard SDSS target selection algorithms.
Abstract: This paper describes the Fourth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), including all survey-quality data taken through 2004 June. The data release includes five-band photometric data for 180 million objects selected over 6670 deg2 and 673,280 spectra of galaxies, quasars, and stars selected from 4783 deg2 of those imaging data using the standard SDSS target selection algorithms. These numbers represent a roughly 27% increment over those of the Third Data Release; all the data from previous data releases are included in the present release. The Fourth Data Release also includes an additional 131,840 spectra of objects selected using a variety of alternative algorithms, to address scientific issues ranging from the kinematics of stars in the Milky Way thick disk to populations of faint galaxies and quasars.

1,110 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202320
202265
20211,746
20202,230
20191,790
20181,317