Institution

# Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

Facility•Plainsboro Center, New Jersey, United States•

About: Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is a(n) facility organization based out in Plainsboro Center, New Jersey, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Tokamak & Plasma. The organization has 2427 authors who have published 4475 publication(s) receiving 106926 citation(s). The organization is also known as: PPPL.

Topics: Tokamak, Plasma, Divertor, Magnetic confinement fusion, Fusion power

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European Atomic Energy Community

^{1}, General Atomics^{2}, Columbia University^{3}, Chalmers University of Technology^{4}, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne^{5}, Massachusetts Institute of Technology^{6}, ITER^{7}, Max Planck Society^{8}, Japan Atomic Energy Agency^{9}, University of Wisconsin-Madison^{10}, Eindhoven University of Technology^{11}, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory^{12}, Forschungszentrum Jülich^{13}, Kurchatov Institute^{14}, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics^{15}, Polytechnic University of Turin^{16}Abstract: Progress in the area of MHD stability and disruptions, since the publication of the 1999 ITER Physics Basis document (1999 Nucl. Fusion 39 2137-2664), is reviewed. Recent theoretical and experimental research has made important advances in both understanding and control of MHD stability in tokamak plasmas. Sawteeth are anticipated in the ITER baseline ELMy H-mode scenario, but the tools exist to avoid or control them through localized current drive or fast ion generation. Active control of other MHD instabilities will most likely be also required in ITER. Extrapolation from existing experiments indicates that stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes by highly localized feedback-controlled current drive should be possible in ITER. Resistive wall modes are a key issue for advanced scenarios, but again, existing experiments indicate that these modes can be stabilized by a combination of plasma rotation and direct feedback control with non-axisymmetric coils. Reduction of error fields is a requirement for avoiding non-rotating magnetic island formation and for maintaining plasma rotation to help stabilize resistive wall modes. Recent experiments have shown the feasibility of reducing error fields to an acceptable level by means of non-axisymmetric coils, possibly controlled by feedback. The MHD stability limits associated with advanced scenarios are becoming well understood theoretically, and can be extended by tailoring of the pressure and current density profiles as well as by other techniques mentioned here. There have been significant advances also in the control of disruptions, most notably by injection of massive quantities of gas, leading to reduced halo current fractions and a larger fraction of the total thermal and magnetic energy dissipated by radiation. These advances in disruption control are supported by the development of means to predict impending disruption, most notably using neural networks. In addition to these advances in means to control or ameliorate the consequences of MHD instabilities, there has been significant progress in improving physics understanding and modelling. This progress has been in areas including the mechanisms governing NTM growth and seeding, in understanding the damping controlling RWM stability and in modelling RWM feedback schemes. For disruptions there has been continued progress on the instability mechanisms that underlie various classes of disruption, on the detailed modelling of halo currents and forces and in refining predictions of quench rates and disruption power loads. Overall the studies reviewed in this chapter demonstrate that MHD instabilities can be controlled, avoided or ameliorated to the extent that they should not compromise ITER operation, though they will necessarily impose a range of constraints.

927 citations

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Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

^{1}, Lehigh University^{2}, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory^{3}, University of Maryland, College Park^{4}, University of Colorado Boulder^{5}, University of Texas at Austin^{6}, General Atomics^{7}, Georgia Institute of Technology^{8}, University of Washington^{9}, University of Alberta^{10}, Chalmers University of Technology^{11}Abstract: The predictions of gyrokinetic and gyrofluid simulations of ion-temperature-gradient(ITG)instability and turbulence in tokamak plasmas as well as some tokamak plasma thermal transportmodels, which have been widely used for predicting the performance of the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak [Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, 1996 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1997), Vol. 1, p. 3], are compared. These comparisons provide information on effects of differences in the physics content of the various models and on the fusion-relevant figures of merit of plasma performance predicted by the models. Many of the comparisons are undertaken for a simplified plasma model and geometry which is an idealization of the plasma conditions and geometry in a Doublet III-D [Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, 1986 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. 1, p. 159] high confinement (H-mode) experiment. Most of the models show good agreements in their predictions and assumptions for the linear growth rates and frequencies. There are some differences associated with different equilibria. However, there are significant differences in the transport levels between the models. The causes of some of the differences are examined in some detail, with particular attention to numerical convergence in the turbulence simulations (with respect to simulation mesh size, system size and, for particle-based simulations, the particle number). The implications for predictions of fusion plasma performance are also discussed.

884 citations

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TL;DR: Three-dimensional gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas with massively parallel computers showed that, with linear flow damping, an asymptotic residual flow develops in agreement with analytic calculations.

Abstract: Three-dimensional gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas with massively parallel computers showed that, with linear flow damping, an asymptotic residual flow develops in agreement with analytic calculations. Nonlinear global simulations of instabilities driven by temperature gradients in the ion component of the plasma support the view that turbulence-driven fluctuating zonal flows can substantially reduce turbulent transport. Finally, the outstanding differences in the flow dynamics observed in global and local simulations are found to be due to profile variations.

865 citations

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

^{1}, European Atomic Energy Community^{2}, University of Toronto^{3}, Japan Atomic Energy Agency^{4}, Max Planck Society^{5}, Forschungszentrum Jülich^{6}, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory^{7}, University of Wisconsin-Madison^{8}, University of California, San Diego^{9}, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory^{10}, Institut national de la recherche scientifique^{11}, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne^{12}, Nagoya University^{13}Abstract: Progress, since the ITER Physics Basis publication (ITER Physics Basis Editors et al 1999 Nucl. Fusion 39 2137–2664), in understanding the processes that will determine the properties of the plasma edge and its interaction with material elements in ITER is described. Experimental areas where significant progress has taken place are energy transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) in particular of the anomalous transport scaling, particle transport in the SOL that plays a major role in the interaction of diverted plasmas with the main-chamber material elements, edge localized mode (ELM) energy deposition on material elements and the transport mechanism for the ELM energy from the main plasma to the plasma facing components, the physics of plasma detachment and neutral dynamics including the edge density profile structure and the control of plasma particle content and He removal, the erosion of low- and high-Z materials in fusion devices, their transport to the core plasma and their migration at the plasma edge including the formation of mixed materials, the processes determining the size and location of the retention of tritium in fusion devices and methods to remove it and the processes determining the efficiency of the various fuelling methods as well as their development towards the ITER requirements. This experimental progress has been accompanied by the development of modelling tools for the physical processes at the edge plasma and plasma–materials interaction and the further validation of these models by comparing their predictions with the new experimental results. Progress in the modelling development and validation has been mostly concentrated in the following areas: refinement in the predictions for ITER with plasma edge modelling codes by inclusion of detailed geometrical features of the divertor and the introduction of physical effects, which can play a major role in determining the divertor parameters at the divertor for ITER conditions such as hydrogen radiation transport and neutral–neutral collisions, modelling of the ion orbits at the plasma edge, which can play a role in determining power deposition at the divertor target, models for plasma–materials and plasma dynamics interaction during ELMs and disruptions, models for the transport of impurities at the plasma edge to describe the core contamination by impurities and the migration of eroded materials at the edge plasma and its associated tritium retention and models for the turbulent processes that determine the anomalous transport of energy and particles across the SOL. The implications for the expected performance of the reference regimes in ITER, the operation of the ITER device and the lifetime of the plasma facing materials are discussed.

856 citations

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Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding plasma turbulence in astrophysical plasmas. It is motivated by observations of electromagnetic and density fluctuations in the solar wind, interstellar medium and galaxy clusters, as well as by models of particle heating in accretion disks. All of these plasmas and many others have turbulent motions at weakly collisional and collisionless scales. The paper focuses on turbulence in a strong mean magnetic field. The key assumptions are that the turbulent fluctuations are small compared to the mean field, spatially anisotropic with respect to it and that their frequency is low compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. The turbulence is assumed to be forced at some system-specific outer scale. The energy injected at this scale has to be dissipated into heat, which ultimately cannot be accomplished without collisions. A kinetic cascade develops that brings the energy to collisional scales both in space and velocity. The nature of the kinetic cascade in various scale ranges depends on the physics of plasma fluctuations that exist there. There are four special scales that separate physically distinct regimes: the electron and ion gyroscales, the mean free path and the electron diffusion scale. In each of the scale ranges separated by these scales, the fully kinetic problem is systematically reduced to a more physically transparent and computationally tractable system of equations, which are derived in a rigorous way. In the inertial range above the ion gyroscale, the kinetic cascade separates into two parts: a cascade of Alfvenic fluctuations and a passive cascade of density and magnetic-field-strength fluctuations. The former are governed by the reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations at both the collisional and collisionless scales; the latter obey a linear kinetic equation along the (moving) field lines associated with the Alfvenic component (in the collisional limit, these compressive fluctuations become the slow and entropy modes of the conventional MHD). In the dissipation range below ion gyroscale, there are again two cascades: the kinetic-Alfven-wave (KAW) cascade governed by two fluid-like electron reduced magnetohydrodynamic (ERMHD) equations and a passive cascade of ion entropy fluctuations both in space and velocity. The latter cascade brings the energy of the inertial-range fluctuations that was Landau-damped at the ion gyroscale to collisional scales in the phase space and leads to ion heating. The KAW energy is similarly damped at the electron gyroscale and converted into electron heat. Kolmogorov-style scaling relations are derived for all of these cascades. The relationship between the theoretical models proposed in this paper and astrophysical applications and observations is discussed in detail.

787 citations

##### Authors

Showing all 2427 results

Name | H-index | Papers | Citations |
---|---|---|---|

David W. Johnson | 160 | 2714 | 140778 |

Kazuhiko Hara | 141 | 1956 | 107697 |

David R. Smith | 110 | 881 | 91683 |

Hantao Ji | 105 | 793 | 42035 |

David J. McComas | 97 | 794 | 38120 |

James R. Wilson | 89 | 1271 | 37470 |

Bruce M. Jakosky | 71 | 441 | 20916 |

Patrick Diamond | 71 | 604 | 22522 |

Roger V. Yelle | 69 | 299 | 14469 |

Kwan-Liu Ma | 65 | 526 | 15442 |

Liu Chen | 64 | 343 | 16067 |

Gennady Shvets | 64 | 449 | 19516 |

David B. Graves | 64 | 278 | 15173 |

Brian LaBombard | 63 | 383 | 13721 |

Amitava Bhattacharjee | 61 | 481 | 14428 |