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Institution

Rowett Research Institute

About: Rowett Research Institute is a(n) based out in . It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Rumen & Population. The organization has 2986 authors who have published 4459 publication(s) receiving 239472 citation(s).
Topics: Rumen, Population, Leptin, Adipose tissue, Melatonin
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Journal ArticleDOI
E. R. Ørskov1, I. McDonald1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A method is proposed for estimating the percentage of dietary protein that is degraded by microbial action in the rumen when protein supplement is added to a specified ration. The potential degradability, p , is measured by incubating the supplement in artificial-fibre bags in the rumen and is related to incubation time, t , by the equation p = a+b (1 – e -ct ). The rate constant k , measuring the passage of the supplement from the rumen to the abomasum, is obtained in a separate experiment in which the supplement is combined with a chromium marker which renders it completely indigestible. The effective percentage degradation, p , of the supplement, allowing for rate of passage, is shown to be p = a +[ bc/(c+k) ] (1- e -(e+k)t ) by time, t , after feeding. As t increases, this tends to the asymptotic value a+bc /( c+k ), which therefore provides an estimate of the degradability of the protein supplement under the specified feeding conditions. The method is illustrated by results obtained with soya-bean meal fed as a supplement to a dried-grass diet for sheep. The incubation measurements showed that 89% of the soya-bean protein disappeared within 24 h and indicated that it was all ultimately degradable with this diet. When the dried grass was given at a restricted level of feeding the allowance for time of retention in the rumen reduced the estimate of final degradability to 71% (69% within 24 h). With ad libitum feeding there was a faster rate of passage and the final degradability was estimated to be 66% (65% within 24 h).

4,296 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Harry J. Flint1, Edward A. Bayer2, Marco T. Rincon1, Raphael Lamed3  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
TL;DR: Genomic analyses of the gut microbiota could revolutionize understanding of these mechanisms and provide new biotechnological tools for the conversion of polysaccharides, including lignocellulosic biomass, into monosaccharides.
Abstract: The microbiota of the mammalian intestine depend largely on dietary polysaccharides as energy sources. Most of these polymers are not degradable by the host, but herbivores can derive 70% of their energy intake from microbial breakdown — a classic example of mutualism. Moreover, dietary polysaccharides that reach the human large intestine have a major impact on gut microbial ecology and health. Insight into the molecular mechanisms by which different gut bacteria use polysaccharides is, therefore, of fundamental importance. Genomic analyses of the gut microbiota could revolutionize our understanding of these mechanisms and provide new biotechnological tools for the conversion of polysaccharides, including lignocellulosic biomass, into monosaccharides.

1,206 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Paul Trayhurn1, John H. Beattie2Institutions (2)
01 Aug 2001
TL;DR: The key challenges in establishing the secretory functions of white fat are to identify the complement of secreted proteins, to establish the role of each secreted protein, and to assess the pathophysiological consequences of changes in adipocyte protein production with alterations in adiposity.
Abstract: The traditional role attributed to white adipose tissue is energy storage, fatty acids being released when fuel is required. The metabolic role of white fat is, however, complex. For example, the tissue is needed for normal glucose homeostasis and a role in inflammatory processes has been proposed. A radical change in perspective followed the discovery of leptin; this critical hormone in energy balance is produced principally by white fat, giving the tissue an endocrine function. Leptin is one of a number of proteins secreted from white adipocytes, which include angiotensinogen, adipsin, acylation-stimulating protein, adiponectin, retinol-binding protein, tumour neorosis factor a, interleukin 6, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue factor. Some of these proteins are inflammatory cytokines, some play a role in lipid metabolism, while others are involved in vascular haemostasis or the complement system. The effects of specific proteins maybe autocrine or paracrine, or the site of action maybe distant from adipose tissue. The most recently described adipocyte secretory proteins are fasting-induced adipose factor, a fibrinogen-angiopoietin-related protein, metallothionein and resistin. Resistin is an adipose tissue-specific factor which is reported to induce insulin resistance, linking diabetes to obesity. Metallothionein is a metal-binding and stress-response protein which may have an antioxidant role. The key challenges in establishing the secretory functions of white fat are to identify the complement of secreted proteins, to establish the role of each secreted protein, and to assess the pathophysiological consequences of changes in adipocyte protein production with alterations in adiposity (obesity, fasting, cachexia). There is already considerable evidence of links between increased production of some adipocyte factors and the metabolic and cardiovascular complications of obesity. In essence, white adipose tissue is a major secretory and endocrine organ involved in a range of functions beyond simple fat storage.

1,117 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A better understanding of the microbial ecology of colonic butyrate-producing bacteria will help to explain the influence of diet uponbutyrate supply, and to suggest new approaches for optimising microbial activity in the large intestine.
Abstract: Butyrate arising from microbial fermentation is important for the energy metabolism and normal development of colonic epithelial cells and has a mainly protective role in relation to colonic disease. While certain dietary substrates such as resistant starch appear to be butyrogenic in the colon, it is not known to what extent these stimulate butyrate production directly, e.g. by promoting amylolytic species, or indirectly, e.g. through cross-feeding of fermentation products. Cultural and molecular studies indicate that the most numerous butyrate-producing bacteria found in human faeces are highly oxygen-sensitive anaerobes belonging to the Clostridial clusters IV and XIVa. These include many previously undescribed species related to Eubacterium, Roseburia, Faecalibacterium and Coprococcus whose distribution and metabolic characteristics are under investigation. A better understanding of the microbial ecology of colonic butyrate-producing bacteria will help to explain the influence of diet upon butyrate supply, and to suggest new approaches for optimising microbial activity in the large intestine.

1,051 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Angela R. Moss1, J. P. Jouany2, John Newbold3Institutions (3)
TL;DR: The most promising areas for future research for reducing methanogenesis are the development of new products/delivery systems for anti-methanogenic compounds or alternative electron acceptors in theRumen and reduction in protozoal numbers in the rumen.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to review the role of methane in the global warming scenario and to examine the contribution to atmospheric methane made by enteric fermentation, mainly by ruminants. Agricultural emissions of methane in the EU-15 have recently been estimated at 10.2 million tonnes per year and represent the greatest source. Of these, approximately two-thirds come from enteric fermentation and one-third from livestock manure. Fermentation of feeds in the rumen is the largest source of methane from enteric fermentation and this paper considers in detail the reasons for, and the consequences of, the fact that the molar percentage of the different volatile fatty acids produced during fermentation influences the production of methane in the rumen. Acetate and butyrate promote methane production while propionate formation can be considered as a competitive pathway for hydrogen use in the rumen. The many alternative approaches to reducing methane are considered, both in terms of reduction per animal and reduction per unit of animal product. It was concluded that the most promising areas for future research for reducing methanogenesis are the development of new products/delivery systems for anti-methanogenic compounds or alternative electron acceptors in the rumen and reduction in protozoal numbers in the rumen. It is also stressed that the reason ruminants are so important to mankind is that much of the world's biomass is rich in fibre. They can convert this into high quality protein sources (i.e. meat and milk) for human consumption and this will need to be balanced against the concomitant production of methane.

1,027 citations


Authors

Showing all 2986 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Sundeep Khosla11554455451
Andrew Collins10068440634
Harry J. Flint9929343712
Alan Crozier9533829741
William M. O'Fallon9518729373
John R. Speakman9566734484
Boris Zhivotovsky9235850297
Michael E. J. Lean9241130939
Nigel W. Bunnett9134831214
John D. Hayes8625733146
Ruth McPherson8530550535
Bernard Portmann8532626442
Olle Ljungqvist8434028386
Michael H. Hastings7822623486
Ronald J. Maughan7836018100
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
20211
20201
20192
20181
20172
20162