About: Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences is a archive organization based out in Brussels, Belgium. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Genus. The organization has 839 authors who have published 3399 publications receiving 82344 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
Flanders Marine Institute1, Australian Museum2, University of New South Wales3, University of Southern Mississippi4, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton5, University of Hasselt6, WorldFish7, American Museum of Natural History8, San Diego State University9, Museum Victoria10, Natural History Museum11, Dowling College12, University of Hamburg13, University of Johannesburg14, James Cook University15, National Museum of Natural History16, National Taiwan Ocean University17, Scripps Institution of Oceanography18, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration19, University of Queensland20, University of Sassari21, Vrije Universiteit Brussel22, Université libre de Bruxelles23, Queensland Museum24, University of California, Merced25, Ghent University26, Naturalis27, Howard University28, University of Gothenburg29, California Academy of Sciences30, Florida Museum of Natural History31, Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science32, Osaka University33, University of Santiago de Compostela34, University of Alaska Anchorage35, University of Málaga36, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research37, National University of Ireland, Galway38, University of Alaska Fairbanks39, Spanish National Research Council40, CABI41, University of Siegen42, Massey University43, University of Copenhagen44, Naturhistorisches Museum45, University of Washington46, Museum für Naturkunde47, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution48, Western Washington University49, University of Bergen50, Nova Southeastern University51, Shirshov Institute of Oceanology52, National University of Singapore53, Shimane University54, Agnes Scott College55, University of the Ryukyus56, University of California, Davis57, Federal University of Paraná58, University of the Basque Country59, University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover60, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences61, Tel Aviv University62, Swedish Museum of Natural History63, Joint Nature Conservation Committee64, The Evergreen State College65, Estonian University of Life Sciences66, University of Maine67, Virginia Commonwealth University68, Trinity College, Dublin69, University of Auckland70
TL;DR: The first register of the marine species of the world is compiled and it is estimated that between one-third and two-thirds of marine species may be undescribed, and previous estimates of there being well over one million marine species appear highly unlikely.
Abstract: Summary Background The question of how many marine species exist is important because it provides a metric for how much we do and do not know about life in the oceans. We have compiled the first register of the marine species of the world and used this baseline to estimate how many more species, partitioned among all major eukaryotic groups, may be discovered. Results There are ∼226,000 eukaryotic marine species described. More species were described in the past decade (∼20,000) than in any previous one. The number of authors describing new species has been increasing at a faster rate than the number of new species described in the past six decades. We report that there are ∼170,000 synonyms, that 58,000–72,000 species are collected but not yet described, and that 482,000–741,000 more species have yet to be sampled. Molecular methods may add tens of thousands of cryptic species. Thus, there may be 0.7–1.0 million marine species. Past rates of description of new species indicate there may be 0.5 ± 0.2 million marine species. On average 37% (median 31%) of species in over 100 recent field studies around the world might be new to science. Conclusions Currently, between one-third and two-thirds of marine species may be undescribed, and previous estimates of there being well over one million marine species appear highly unlikely. More species than ever before are being described annually by an increasing number of authors. If the current trend continues, most species will be discovered this century.
Max Planck Society1, University of Tübingen2, Howard Hughes Medical Institute3, Harvard University4, Broad Institute5, University College Dublin6, University of Coimbra7, University of Adelaide8, Russian Academy of Sciences9, Altai State University10, University of Pisa11, University of Bari12, University of Cantabria13, University of New Mexico14, Austrian Academy of Sciences15, University of Vienna16, Naturhistorisches Museum17, University of Ferrara18, University of Florence19, University of Siena20, Centre national de la recherche scientifique21, University of Bucharest22, California State University, Northridge23, University of Bordeaux24, University of Toulouse25, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences26, Masaryk University27, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic28
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago and find that the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3-6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans.
Abstract: Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3-6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas there is no evidence of the earliest modern humans in Europe contributing to the genetic composition of present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. An ~35,000-year-old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe at the height of the last Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners became widespread in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European prehistory.
University of Oxford1, Australian National University2, Queen's University Belfast3, University of Maryland, College Park4, University of the Basque Country5, Autonomous University of Madrid6, University of Siena7, Centre national de la recherche scientifique8, University of Tübingen9, University of La Laguna10, University of Cantabria11, University of Trento12, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences13, University of Massachusetts Amherst14, University of Arizona15, National University of Distance Education16, Weizmann Institute of Science17, Trent University18, University of Genoa19, University of Ferrara20, University of Oviedo21, Université de Montréal22, University College Dublin23, Natural History Museum24
TL;DR: Improved accelerator mass spectrometry 14C techniques are applied to construct robust chronologies from 40 key Mousterian and Neanderthal archaeological sites, showing that there was ample time for the transmission of cultural and symbolic behaviours, as well as possible genetic exchanges, between the two groups.
Abstract: The timing of Neanderthal disappearance and the extent to which they overlapped with the earliest incoming anatomically modern humans (AMHs) in Eurasia are key questions in palaeoanthropology. Determining the spatiotemporal relationship between the two populations is crucial if we are to understand the processes, timing and reasons leading to the disappearance of Neanderthals and the likelihood of cultural and genetic exchange. Serious technical challenges, however, have hindered reliable dating of the period, as the radiocarbon method reaches its limit at ∼50,000 years ago. Here we apply improved accelerator mass spectrometry (14)C techniques to construct robust chronologies from 40 key Mousterian and Neanderthal archaeological sites, ranging from Russia to Spain. Bayesian age modelling was used to generate probability distribution functions to determine the latest appearance date. We show that the Mousterian ended by 41,030-39,260 calibrated years bp (at 95.4% probability) across Europe. We also demonstrate that succeeding 'transitional' archaeological industries, one of which has been linked with Neanderthals (Châtelperronian), end at a similar time. Our data indicate that the disappearance of Neanderthals occurred at different times in different regions. Comparing the data with results obtained from the earliest dated AMH sites in Europe, associated with the Uluzzian technocomplex, allows us to quantify the temporal overlap between the two human groups. The results reveal a significant overlap of 2,600-5,400 years (at 95.4% probability). This has important implications for models seeking to explain the cultural, technological and biological elements involved in the replacement of Neanderthals by AMHs. A mosaic of populations in Europe during the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition suggests that there was ample time for the transmission of cultural and symbolic behaviours, as well as possible genetic exchanges, between the two groups.
TL;DR: A new, monophyletic taxonomy for dendrobatids is proposed, recognizing the inclusive clade as a superfamily (Dendrobatoidea) composed of two families (one of which is new), six subfamilies (three new), and 16 genera (four new).
Abstract: The known diversity of dart-poison frog species has grown from 70 in the 1960s to 247 at present, with no sign that the discovery of new species will wane in the foreseeable future. Although this growth in knowledge of the diversity of this group has been accompanied by detailed investigations of many aspects of the biology of dendrobatids, their phylogenetic relationships remain poorly understood. This study was designed to test hypotheses of dendrobatid diversification by combining new and prior genotypic and phenotypic evidence in a total evidence analysis. DNA sequences were sampled for five mitochondrial and six nuclear loci (approximately 6,100 base pairs [bp]; x¯ = 3,740 bp per terminal; total dataset composed of approximately 1.55 million bp), and 174 phenotypic characters were scored from adult and larval morphology, alkaloid profiles, and behavior. These data were combined with relevant published DNA sequences. Ingroup sampling targeted several previously unsampled species, including Ar...
TL;DR: The results reveal that body size and dispersal mode are important drivers of metacommunity structure and these traits should therefore be considered when developing a predictive framework for metacomunity dynamics.
Abstract: Relationships between traits of organisms and the structure of their metacommunities have so far mainly been explored with meta-analyses. We compared metacommunities of a wide variety of aquatic organism groups (12 groups, ranging from bacteria to fish) in the same set of 99 ponds to minimise biases inherent to meta-analyses. In the category of passive dispersers, large-bodied groups showed stronger spatial patterning than small-bodied groups suggesting an increasing impact of dispersal limitation with increasing body size. Metacommunities of organisms with the ability to fly (i.e. insect groups) showed a weaker imprint of dispersal limitation than passive dispersers with similar body size. In contrast, dispersal movements of vertebrate groups (fish and amphibians) seemed to be mainly confined to local connectivity patterns. Our results reveal that body size and dispersal mode are important drivers of metacommunity structure and these traits should therefore be considered when developing a predictive framework for metacommunity dynamics.
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|John R. Horner||50||111||7147|
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