Education•Kingston, Ontario, Canada•
About: Royal Military College of Canada is a education organization based out in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Stars & Microstrip antenna. The organization has 3437 authors who have published 6664 publications receiving 139514 citations. The organization is also known as: collège militaire royal du Canada & RMC.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
01 Dec 1973-Cartographica: The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization
TL;DR: In this paper, two algorithms to reduce the number of points required to represent the line and, if desired, produce caricatures are presented and compared with the most promising methods so far suggested.
Abstract: All digitizing methods, as a general rule, record lines with far more data than is necessary for accurate graphic reproduction or for computer analysis. Two algorithms to reduce the number of points required to represent the line and, if desired, produce caricatures, are presented and compared with the most promising methods so far suggested. Line reduction will form a major part of automated generalization. Regle generale, les methodes numeriques enregistrent des lignes avec beaucoup plus de donnees qu'il n'est necessaire a la reproduction graphique precise ou a la recherche par ordinateur. L'auteur presente deux algorithmes pour reduire le nombre de points necessaires pour representer la ligne et produire des caricatures si desire, et les compare aux methodes les plus prometteuses suggerees jusqu'ici. La reduction de la ligne constituera une partie importante de la generalisation automatique.
TL;DR: In the ongoing clinical trial of ALA-induced Pp IX photodynamic therapy, the response rate for basal cell carcinomas following a single treatment has been 90% complete response and 7.5% partial response for the first 80 lesions treated.
Abstract: 5-Aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) is a precursor of protoporphyrin IX (Pp IX) in the biosynthetic pathway for haem. Certain types of cells have a large capacity to synthesize Pp IX when exposed to an adequate concentration of exogenous ALA. Since the conversion of Pp IX into haem is relatively slow, such cells tend to accumulate photosensitizing concentrations of Pp IX. Pp IX photosensitization can be induced in cells of the epidermis and its appendages, but not in the dermis. Moreover, since ALA in aqueous solution passes readily through abnormal keratin, but not through normal keratin, the topical application of ALA in aqueous solution to actinic keratoses or superficial basal cell or squamous cell carcinomas induces Pp IX photosensitization that is restricted primarily to the abnormal epithelium. Subsequent exposure to photoactivating light selectively destroys such lesions. In our ongoing clinical trial of ALA-induced Pp IX photodynamic therapy, the response rate for basal cell carcinomas following a single treatment has been 90% complete response and 7.5% partial response for the first 80 lesions treated. The cosmetic results have been excellent, and patient acceptance has been very good.
TL;DR: Preclinical studies in experimental animals and human volunteers indicate that ALA can induce a localized tissue-specific photosensitization if administered by intradermal injection, opening the possibility of using ALA-induced PpIX to treat tumors that are too thick or that lie too deep to be accessible to either topical or locally injected ALA.
Abstract: The tissue photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is an immediate precursor of heme in the biosynthetic pathway for heme. In certain types of cells and tissues, the rate of synthesis of PpIX is determined by the rate of synthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), which in turn is regulated via a feedback control mechanism governed by the concentration of free heme. The presence of exogenous ALA bypasses the feedback control, and thus may induce the intracellular accumulation of photosensitizing concentrations of PpIX. However, this occurs only in certain types of cells and tissues. The resulting tissue-specific photosensitization provides a basis for using ALA-induced PpIX for photodynamic therapy. The topical application of ALA to certain malignant and non-malignant lesions of the skin can induce a clinically useful degree of lesion-specific photosensitization. Superficial basal cell carcinomas showed a complete response rate of approximately 79% following a single exposure to light. Recent preclinical studies in experimental animals and human volunteers indicate that ALA can induce a localized tissue-specific photosensitization if administered by intradermal injection. A generalized but still quite tissue-specific photosensitization may be induced if ALA is administered by either subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection or by mouth. This opens the possibility of using ALA-induced PpIX to treat tumors that are too thick or that lie too deep to be accessible to either topical or locally injected ALA.
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|Michael E. Fisher||92||440||38884|
|Stephen C. Parker||66||329||14022|
|Gregg A. Wade||64||558||13519|
|William R. Cullen||59||390||16661|
|Richard J. Bathurst||53||245||9410|
|David D. Yao||53||236||8610|
|Mathew J. Evans||53||132||9076|
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